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FIU / Anthropology / ANT 3241 / What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified?

What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified?

What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified?

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Myth, Ritual, and Mysticism
Professor: Jean rahier
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Anthropology
Cost: 50
Name: anthropology study guide #2
Description: These notes will cover what will be on our next exam. Use these as guidelines towards what you should be looking for as you study
Uploaded: 02/27/2018
14 Pages 74 Views 6 Unlocks
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Exam 2 Study Guide


What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified?



Chapter 8- Souls, Death, and Afterlife

∙ Ancestor veneration: views death as part of a natural cycle, assist the dead  and continues a relationship with them, cared for the dead as part of the  community, and fear the dead will become lost or restless spirits in improper  rituals.

∙ Cult of the dead: views death as polluting, their rituals separates the dead  and guide them to a new home, they fear the dead, and see improper rituals  as causing problems and illnesses for the living

∙ Samhain: ancient Celtic holiday where the night was a time for the wandering dead so food and drinks was brought out to masked revelers. A precursor to  Halloween. If you want to learn more check out What is the dose-response relationship?

∙ Day of the Dead: Mexican holiday associated with All Saints’ Day and All  Souls’ Day on November 1 and 2, seen as a time where the dead can reunite  with their loved ones.


What are prophets? what roles do they play in a religion?



∙ Ching-Ming: holiday where the living cleans the grave of their ancestors,  offering food, and launching fireworks

∙ Hungry Ghost: a festival lasting about a month where ancestors come from  the spiritual realm into the living where they must be appeased to prevent  misfortune.

Chapter 6- Religious Specialists

∙ What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified? Shamans,  Priests, Healer, diviners, prophets. Priests are often found under more  complex, food-producing societies while shamans are associated with  technologically simpler ones. Healers, diviners, and prophets are more like  subsets of these two specialists based on their rituals 


How do pentacostal healing and neoshamanism compare to traditional shamanism?



We also discuss several other topics like Under the mailbox rule, acceptance is valid when?

∙ What characteristics distinguish religious specialists classified as shamans  from priests? How are each chosen and trained? What types of rituals do they perform? Shamans are part-time specialists that make direct contact with the spirit world, so they gain power from it, are often chosen by spirits, and  rituals tend to have shamans in an altered state of mind. Priests are full-time  specialists that are associated with formalized religious institution, often  representing a community in dealing with a deity, whose rituals are often  prescribed like ceremonies and periodic rituals. They are usually inducted  through training and spiritual rituals, and sometimes its inherited. We also discuss several other topics like In the usa, the sound of house music symbolizes what?

∙ How do Pentacostal healing and Neoshamanism compare to traditional  shamanism? Pentacostals shaman uses their altered state of consciousness in order to heal a person in need, while neoshamanism focuses on the individual need so it’s a form of self-help in comparison. 

∙ What are prophets? What roles do they play in a religion? They are the  mouthpiece of God, communicating the word and will of Gods to the  community. Jesus, Moses, and Mohammad are well known examples but so is  Handsome Lake of the Seneca tribe Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between presidential and parliamentary systems?

∙ Priests: Priests are full-time religious specialists that are associated with  formalized religious institution. Examples are bishop and nuns, but also the  Japanese Kamichu which differs from the yuta as an embodiment of a specific kami associated with the clan. Yuta are only an intermediate between the  spirits and villagers.

∙ Shamans: part-time religious specialist who receives their power directly from the spirit world, acquiring status and power through personal communication  with the supernatural. One example is the Hmong shaman we saw  conducting the split horn ritual, and Siberian Yakut shaman with 2 familiars in  the form of a guardian shaman spirit and an external soul belonging to an  animal. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of customer buying behavior?

∙ Healer: priests or shamans focusing on the curing of illness or injury.  Herbalists are a version that uses plant and other materials as a cure. ∙ Diviners: someone who practices divination, techniques and activities used to obtain info about things that are not normally knowable. 

∙ Prophet: someone who communicates the words and will of the gods to the  community, acting as an intermediary between the people and the gods. ∙ Pentecostal healing: shamanistic healing rituals in the US, often using dance  and song  

∙ Neoshamanism: a modern spiritual practice that draws on some concepts and practices of traditional shamanism, but usually used as a method for  improving an individual’s life 

∙ Soul retrieval: a ritual the Hmong shaman underwent to better his health,  searching for his soul and wrestling the God of Death for it We also discuss several other topics like What is covered under the americans with disabilities act?

∙ Handsome Lake: prophet of the Seneca tribe. Found dead then revived, he  laid the foundation for the Longhouse religion. 

∙ Joseph Smith: founder of Mormonism 

∙ Wovoka: native American that received visions that led him to reviving the  Ghost Dance of 1890 

Ch. 3- Religious symbols

∙ What is a symbol? A shared understanding about the meaning of certain  words, attributes, or objects; something that stands for something else. What forms can they take? They can take the form of physical objects,  geometric shapes, colors, words, music and dance.

How does culture affect interpretations of symbols? The same symbol can  mean different things to distinct cultures

∙ How are symbols used in religious practices? How do they communicate  complex messages? Symbols can be used to communicate with the spiritual  worlds, with specific martials and how they are used developing a different  kind of message.

How has the fish been used as a Christian symbol? The first letters of the  Greek word for fish forms an acrostic, or a word that is derived from the first  letter of a series of words. When Christians were persecuted, this was used as a type of password as one person draws the first arc and the second finishes  it with a second arc if they’re Christian.

What meanings have been given to the “swastika”? It used to mean  prosperity and good luck, but now its associated with the German Nazi Parties and the neo-nazis that believe in their heinous ideology.  

∙ How is color used symbolically? Color has meaning all over different cultures,  but each meaning can differ between cultures. For example, white is avoided  as it means death and Chinese brides wear red. We associate colors with  different temperaments and temperature like how Yorubas see Funfun, or  white and silver, as associated with coolness and age. 

Why is time “symbolic”? How do notions of time vary by culture? Its how  humans handle nonphysical concepts, creating units to describe the passage  of time like the seven days in our weeks, the sixteen days of Yoruba, and the  second Mayan year of 260 days. The calendar we use today is based on the  Gregorian calender. 

How do notions of time affect ritual practices in Christianity, Islam, Judaism?  It gives dates for periodic rituals, and holiday like Ramadam being in the  ninth month of the Islamic lunar calender which means each month begins  with the sighting of the first moon, while Jewish have their New year with  Rosh Hashanah, and early Christians have easter.

∙ How are dance and music symbolic? How do they transmit religious  messages? They can tell stories or set the mood for a ritual. Some music can  be used in practical terms like the Tuva imitating sounds in nature to make  contact with supernatural powers

∙ Displacement: the ability to use symbols to refer to things and activities that  are remote from the users

∙ Openness: a feature of symbols; the ability to create new symbols ∙ Swastika: a symbol formed by two lines crossing at right angles with their  bent at right angles in a clockwise or counterclockwise position ∙ Whirling log: Navaho dugout canoe built by the gods, represented by the  swastika.

∙ Pentagram: five sided figures, associated with the five-pointed star called a  pentacle. Associated with paganism and Satanism

∙ Cross: an upright pole with a transverse piece in the middle or near the top.  Used for execution by the Romans; now a symbol for the Christian religion. ∙ Totem: a symbol or emblem that stands for a social unit. Totemism is a  religious system that assigns different plant and animal species to specific  social groups and postulates a relationship between the group and the  species formed during the period of creation.

∙ Dreamtime: the aboriginal creation myths that establishes a special  relationship between humans and animals  

∙ Maya calendar: has a solar year of 365 days, and a second kind of years with  260 years 

Ch. 4- Rituals

∙ What is a ritual? What are some common examples from our society?  Patterned, reoccurring sequence of events like your daily routine. What do rituals do for a society? How do they function? In a way, a ritual  resembles a play in which people are actors with roles to play, and what they  do is carry on a function

∙ How can the worldview of a religious group be examined through their  rituals? It can show off how they see the world around them, like Navaho  religion stressing the importance of balance and harmony so their ceremony  attempts to restore balance.

How are rituals and myths sometimes related? Two of the most basic  elements of religious practices are rituals and myths. Rituals are often based  on myths, as myths may provide elements for the development of the ritual.

∙ What are some examples of rites of intensification? There’s the hunting and  gathering rite of intensification, which is influencing nature to find food, like  intuits reflecting on the creation myth with the seals. And social rite of  intensification, which are usually church services to maintain the normal  function of a community.

∙ What are rites of passage? A form of ideological ritual that occurs when an  individual changes status, serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint  it on the community’s collective memory.

Know the 3 phases of rites of passage and how they work. What are some  common features of rites of passage? What types of symbolic representations are commonly found in rites of passage? The three stages are separation,  transition, and incorporation. Separation is when an individual is removed  from their former status, like our friend Papi in Return to Belaye having to  leave his village by going to the woods. During transition, several activities  take place that bring about the change in status, like Papi actually being in  the woods with his fellow men. Incorporation, the person or group returns to  normal society but with something new, like Papi officially being a man after  returning from the woods

∙ How do pilgrimages function as ritual acts? What is the hajj? Which  classifications of rituals can be applied to this religious event? A pilgrimage is  a ritual act as it’s a journey to a sacred place, and it’d be classified as either a social rite of intensification or a therapy ritual which means its for healing.  The Haji is the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, a duty that mustb e done  at least once in every Muslim’s adult life. 

∙ What are some types of body alteration discussed in class and in your book?  What makes body alteration a ritual practice? Many rituals have body  alteration as a symbol for liminality, and sometimes used as a rite of passage like circumcision being a prescribed ritual.

∙ Calendrical ritual: a ritual that is preformed on a regular basis as part of a  religious calendar, like holidays

∙ Occasional ritual: a ritual performed when a particular need arise like for  healing

∙ Prescriptive rituals: a ritual that a deity or religious authority requires to be  preformed

∙ Situational rituals: a ritual that arises as needed , frequently in times of crisis ∙ Rite of passage: a ritual that occurs when an individual changes status,  serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint it on the community’s  collective memory

∙ Social rite of intensification: a type of ideological ritual that functions to  reinforce the belief system and the value of the society

∙ Victor Turner: provided a list of liminalities, the state of ambiguous  marginality during which the metamorphosis takes place 

∙ Separation: first phase of a rite of passage in which an individual is removed  from his or her former status.

∙ Transition: the second phase of a rite of passage during which a person is in a liminal state and is moved from one status to another.

∙ Incorporation: the final stage of rite of passage in which the individual is  reintroduced to the community in his or her new status

∙ Communitas: a state characterized by a sense of equality, community, and  camaraderie 

∙ Circumcision: removal of the foreskin of the penis, commonly found in many  cultures

∙ Scarification: a piece of skin is raised and cut, and rubbed with materials to  encourage scarring.

∙ Pilgrimage: a journey to a sacred place or a sequence of sacred spaces at  which rituals are performed.

∙ Taboo: objects and persons that are supernaturally prohibited. May also refer  to certain behaviors that would bring about negative consequences through  supernatural means.

Ch. 5- Altered states of consciousness  

∙ What are the characteristics of altered states of consciousness? Its any  mental state that differs from a normal mental state, such as reduction or  increase of external stimuli, increase or decrease alterntess, and alteration in  body chemistry or physiology of nervous system

What methods may be used to achieve altered states of consciousness?  Fasting, pain, drugs, meditation, intense mental absorption in a task, rituals  like for healing and dancing, and spiritual possession

∙ What is the biological basis for achieving altered states of consciousness?  Cultural plays a role in how one interprets an alter state, but it usually from  an effect brought upon the body like the sympathetic system, or arousal  system of the brain being pushed into over stimulus.

∙ How does the setting affect the use of intoxicants? Simply put, different  settings determine when its appropriate to use intoxicants. Peyote is illegal in the United States but its legally used by the Native American church similarly  to how Christians and Jews use sacramental wines.

∙ What roles do altered states play in religious practice? Sometimes its seen as  a spirit or god entering the person’s body in a phenomenon called spirit  possession, and its sometimes seen as a person’s soul leaving the body. It’s  commonly used in healing rituals, and its associated with the idea of a  unitary state, in which a individual is having the feeling of being one with the  supernatural.

How are drugs used by the Huichol, Native American Church, Yanomamo, and Rastafarians? Instead of being used for recreational use, the drugs are used  as a gateway to the spiritual world but sometimes its seen as dangerous so  these cultures emphasize its use only in rituals and sometimes have shamans to help the people undergoing these altered state of mind.  

∙ How are altered states of consciousness used in the Holiness church, the  Cheyenne Sun Dance? Both do not use any drug to create an altered state of  consciousness but rather through intense concentration in prayer, using loud  music, and intense dance to connect with spirits

∙ Peyote: a type of hallucinogenic cactus used in peyotism

∙ Sympathetic system: the arousal system of the brain.

∙ Orientation association structure: the part of the brain that enavles us to  distinguish ourselves from the world around us and to orient ourselves in  space.

∙ Unitary state: an altered state of consciousness which an individual  experiences a feeling of becoming one with the supernatural  

∙ Ecstatic state: an altered state of consciousness with reduced external  awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness.

∙ Meditative state: a state of deep reflection and higher consciousness,  somewhere between waking and dreaming  

∙ Spirit possession: an altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a  spirit taking over control of a human body and is either deliberately induced  by a ritual performance or the consequence of an illness caused by a spirit  taking control

∙ Trance state: a sleeplike altered state of consciousness characterized by  absent of sensory and motor activity

∙ Timothy Leary: American psychologist known for advocating the therapeutic  potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions

∙ Fasting: the act of abstaining from eating food and drinking water over a  period of time

∙ Sacred pain: ritualistic pain that can induce an altered state of consciousness, associated with  

purification or change

Exam 2 Study Guide

Chapter 8- Souls, Death, and Afterlife

∙ Ancestor veneration: views death as part of a natural cycle, assist the dead  and continues a relationship with them, cared for the dead as part of the  community, and fear the dead will become lost or restless spirits in improper  rituals.

∙ Cult of the dead: views death as polluting, their rituals separates the dead  and guide them to a new home, they fear the dead, and see improper rituals  as causing problems and illnesses for the living

∙ Samhain: ancient Celtic holiday where the night was a time for the wandering dead so food and drinks was brought out to masked revelers. A precursor to  Halloween.

∙ Day of the Dead: Mexican holiday associated with All Saints’ Day and All  Souls’ Day on November 1 and 2, seen as a time where the dead can reunite  with their loved ones.

∙ Ching-Ming: holiday where the living cleans the grave of their ancestors,  offering food, and launching fireworks

∙ Hungry Ghost: a festival lasting about a month where ancestors come from  the spiritual realm into the living where they must be appeased to prevent  misfortune.

Chapter 6- Religious Specialists

∙ What types of religious specialists have anthropologists classified? Shamans,  Priests, Healer, diviners, prophets. Priests are often found under more  complex, food-producing societies while shamans are associated with  technologically simpler ones. Healers, diviners, and prophets are more like  subsets of these two specialists based on their rituals 

∙ What characteristics distinguish religious specialists classified as shamans  from priests? How are each chosen and trained? What types of rituals do they perform? Shamans are part-time specialists that make direct contact with the spirit world, so they gain power from it, are often chosen by spirits, and  rituals tend to have shamans in an altered state of mind. Priests are full-time  specialists that are associated with formalized religious institution, often  representing a community in dealing with a deity, whose rituals are often  prescribed like ceremonies and periodic rituals. They are usually inducted  through training and spiritual rituals, and sometimes its inherited.

∙ How do Pentacostal healing and Neoshamanism compare to traditional  shamanism? Pentacostals shaman uses their altered state of consciousness in order to heal a person in need, while neoshamanism focuses on the individual need so it’s a form of self-help in comparison. 

∙ What are prophets? What roles do they play in a religion? They are the  mouthpiece of God, communicating the word and will of Gods to the  community. Jesus, Moses, and Mohammad are well known examples but so is  Handsome Lake of the Seneca tribe 

∙ Priests: Priests are full-time religious specialists that are associated with  formalized religious institution. Examples are bishop and nuns, but also the  Japanese Kamichu which differs from the yuta as an embodiment of a specific kami associated with the clan. Yuta are only an intermediate between the  spirits and villagers.

∙ Shamans: part-time religious specialist who receives their power directly from the spirit world, acquiring status and power through personal communication  with the supernatural. One example is the Hmong shaman we saw  conducting the split horn ritual, and Siberian Yakut shaman with 2 familiars in  the form of a guardian shaman spirit and an external soul belonging to an  animal. 

∙ Healer: priests or shamans focusing on the curing of illness or injury.  Herbalists are a version that uses plant and other materials as a cure. ∙ Diviners: someone who practices divination, techniques and activities used to obtain info about things that are not normally knowable. 

∙ Prophet: someone who communicates the words and will of the gods to the  community, acting as an intermediary between the people and the gods. ∙ Pentecostal healing: shamanistic healing rituals in the US, often using dance  and song  

∙ Neoshamanism: a modern spiritual practice that draws on some concepts and practices of traditional shamanism, but usually used as a method for  improving an individual’s life 

∙ Soul retrieval: a ritual the Hmong shaman underwent to better his health,  searching for his soul and wrestling the God of Death for it

∙ Handsome Lake: prophet of the Seneca tribe. Found dead then revived, he  laid the foundation for the Longhouse religion. 

∙ Joseph Smith: founder of Mormonism 

∙ Wovoka: native American that received visions that led him to reviving the  Ghost Dance of 1890 

Ch. 3- Religious symbols

∙ What is a symbol? A shared understanding about the meaning of certain  words, attributes, or objects; something that stands for something else. What forms can they take? They can take the form of physical objects,  geometric shapes, colors, words, music and dance.

How does culture affect interpretations of symbols? The same symbol can  mean different things to distinct cultures

∙ How are symbols used in religious practices? How do they communicate  complex messages? Symbols can be used to communicate with the spiritual  worlds, with specific martials and how they are used developing a different  kind of message.

How has the fish been used as a Christian symbol? The first letters of the  Greek word for fish forms an acrostic, or a word that is derived from the first  letter of a series of words. When Christians were persecuted, this was used as a type of password as one person draws the first arc and the second finishes  it with a second arc if they’re Christian.

What meanings have been given to the “swastika”? It used to mean  prosperity and good luck, but now its associated with the German Nazi Parties and the neo-nazis that believe in their heinous ideology.  

∙ How is color used symbolically? Color has meaning all over different cultures,  but each meaning can differ between cultures. For example, white is avoided  as it means death and Chinese brides wear red. We associate colors with  different temperaments and temperature like how Yorubas see Funfun, or  white and silver, as associated with coolness and age. 

Why is time “symbolic”? How do notions of time vary by culture? Its how  humans handle nonphysical concepts, creating units to describe the passage  of time like the seven days in our weeks, the sixteen days of Yoruba, and the  second Mayan year of 260 days. The calendar we use today is based on the  Gregorian calender. 

How do notions of time affect ritual practices in Christianity, Islam, Judaism?  It gives dates for periodic rituals, and holiday like Ramadam being in the  ninth month of the Islamic lunar calender which means each month begins  with the sighting of the first moon, while Jewish have their New year with  Rosh Hashanah, and early Christians have easter.

∙ How are dance and music symbolic? How do they transmit religious  messages? They can tell stories or set the mood for a ritual. Some music can  be used in practical terms like the Tuva imitating sounds in nature to make  contact with supernatural powers

∙ Displacement: the ability to use symbols to refer to things and activities that  are remote from the users

∙ Openness: a feature of symbols; the ability to create new symbols ∙ Swastika: a symbol formed by two lines crossing at right angles with their  bent at right angles in a clockwise or counterclockwise position ∙ Whirling log: Navaho dugout canoe built by the gods, represented by the  swastika.

∙ Pentagram: five sided figures, associated with the five-pointed star called a  pentacle. Associated with paganism and Satanism

∙ Cross: an upright pole with a transverse piece in the middle or near the top.  Used for execution by the Romans; now a symbol for the Christian religion. ∙ Totem: a symbol or emblem that stands for a social unit. Totemism is a  religious system that assigns different plant and animal species to specific  social groups and postulates a relationship between the group and the  species formed during the period of creation.

∙ Dreamtime: the aboriginal creation myths that establishes a special  relationship between humans and animals  

∙ Maya calendar: has a solar year of 365 days, and a second kind of years with  260 years 

Ch. 4- Rituals

∙ What is a ritual? What are some common examples from our society?  Patterned, reoccurring sequence of events like your daily routine. What do rituals do for a society? How do they function? In a way, a ritual  resembles a play in which people are actors with roles to play, and what they  do is carry on a function

∙ How can the worldview of a religious group be examined through their  rituals? It can show off how they see the world around them, like Navaho  religion stressing the importance of balance and harmony so their ceremony  attempts to restore balance.

How are rituals and myths sometimes related? Two of the most basic  elements of religious practices are rituals and myths. Rituals are often based  on myths, as myths may provide elements for the development of the ritual.

∙ What are some examples of rites of intensification? There’s the hunting and  gathering rite of intensification, which is influencing nature to find food, like  intuits reflecting on the creation myth with the seals. And social rite of  intensification, which are usually church services to maintain the normal  function of a community.

∙ What are rites of passage? A form of ideological ritual that occurs when an  individual changes status, serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint  it on the community’s collective memory.

Know the 3 phases of rites of passage and how they work. What are some  common features of rites of passage? What types of symbolic representations are commonly found in rites of passage? The three stages are separation,  transition, and incorporation. Separation is when an individual is removed  from their former status, like our friend Papi in Return to Belaye having to  leave his village by going to the woods. During transition, several activities  take place that bring about the change in status, like Papi actually being in  the woods with his fellow men. Incorporation, the person or group returns to  normal society but with something new, like Papi officially being a man after  returning from the woods

∙ How do pilgrimages function as ritual acts? What is the hajj? Which  classifications of rituals can be applied to this religious event? A pilgrimage is  a ritual act as it’s a journey to a sacred place, and it’d be classified as either a social rite of intensification or a therapy ritual which means its for healing.  The Haji is the annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, a duty that mustb e done  at least once in every Muslim’s adult life. 

∙ What are some types of body alteration discussed in class and in your book?  What makes body alteration a ritual practice? Many rituals have body  alteration as a symbol for liminality, and sometimes used as a rite of passage like circumcision being a prescribed ritual.

∙ Calendrical ritual: a ritual that is preformed on a regular basis as part of a  religious calendar, like holidays

∙ Occasional ritual: a ritual performed when a particular need arise like for  healing

∙ Prescriptive rituals: a ritual that a deity or religious authority requires to be  preformed

∙ Situational rituals: a ritual that arises as needed , frequently in times of crisis ∙ Rite of passage: a ritual that occurs when an individual changes status,  serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint it on the community’s  collective memory

∙ Social rite of intensification: a type of ideological ritual that functions to  reinforce the belief system and the value of the society

∙ Victor Turner: provided a list of liminalities, the state of ambiguous  marginality during which the metamorphosis takes place 

∙ Separation: first phase of a rite of passage in which an individual is removed  from his or her former status.

∙ Transition: the second phase of a rite of passage during which a person is in a liminal state and is moved from one status to another.

∙ Incorporation: the final stage of rite of passage in which the individual is  reintroduced to the community in his or her new status

∙ Communitas: a state characterized by a sense of equality, community, and  camaraderie 

∙ Circumcision: removal of the foreskin of the penis, commonly found in many  cultures

∙ Scarification: a piece of skin is raised and cut, and rubbed with materials to  encourage scarring.

∙ Pilgrimage: a journey to a sacred place or a sequence of sacred spaces at  which rituals are performed.

∙ Taboo: objects and persons that are supernaturally prohibited. May also refer  to certain behaviors that would bring about negative consequences through  supernatural means.

Ch. 5- Altered states of consciousness  

∙ What are the characteristics of altered states of consciousness? Its any  mental state that differs from a normal mental state, such as reduction or  increase of external stimuli, increase or decrease alterntess, and alteration in  body chemistry or physiology of nervous system

What methods may be used to achieve altered states of consciousness?  Fasting, pain, drugs, meditation, intense mental absorption in a task, rituals  like for healing and dancing, and spiritual possession

∙ What is the biological basis for achieving altered states of consciousness?  Cultural plays a role in how one interprets an alter state, but it usually from  an effect brought upon the body like the sympathetic system, or arousal  system of the brain being pushed into over stimulus.

∙ How does the setting affect the use of intoxicants? Simply put, different  settings determine when its appropriate to use intoxicants. Peyote is illegal in the United States but its legally used by the Native American church similarly  to how Christians and Jews use sacramental wines.

∙ What roles do altered states play in religious practice? Sometimes its seen as  a spirit or god entering the person’s body in a phenomenon called spirit  possession, and its sometimes seen as a person’s soul leaving the body. It’s  commonly used in healing rituals, and its associated with the idea of a  unitary state, in which a individual is having the feeling of being one with the  supernatural.

How are drugs used by the Huichol, Native American Church, Yanomamo, and Rastafarians? Instead of being used for recreational use, the drugs are used  as a gateway to the spiritual world but sometimes its seen as dangerous so  these cultures emphasize its use only in rituals and sometimes have shamans to help the people undergoing these altered state of mind.  

∙ How are altered states of consciousness used in the Holiness church, the  Cheyenne Sun Dance? Both do not use any drug to create an altered state of  consciousness but rather through intense concentration in prayer, using loud  music, and intense dance to connect with spirits

∙ Peyote: a type of hallucinogenic cactus used in peyotism

∙ Sympathetic system: the arousal system of the brain.

∙ Orientation association structure: the part of the brain that enavles us to  distinguish ourselves from the world around us and to orient ourselves in  space.

∙ Unitary state: an altered state of consciousness which an individual  experiences a feeling of becoming one with the supernatural  

∙ Ecstatic state: an altered state of consciousness with reduced external  awareness and expanded interior mental and spiritual awareness.

∙ Meditative state: a state of deep reflection and higher consciousness,  somewhere between waking and dreaming  

∙ Spirit possession: an altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a  spirit taking over control of a human body and is either deliberately induced  by a ritual performance or the consequence of an illness caused by a spirit  taking control

∙ Trance state: a sleeplike altered state of consciousness characterized by  absent of sensory and motor activity

∙ Timothy Leary: American psychologist known for advocating the therapeutic  potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions

∙ Fasting: the act of abstaining from eating food and drinking water over a  period of time

∙ Sacred pain: ritualistic pain that can induce an altered state of consciousness, associated with  

purification or change

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