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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 7

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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 7

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background image     Week 7 
ANTH 1500 26 Feb 2018  
  
Mesopotamia: Socio-political complexity and the first cities 
  
Chronological Period: 
1.  Neolithic: Halaf (Emerging household institutions) 7500-6500 BCE 
2.  Ubaid Period (1st temples, stratification, slow wheel) 6300-4500 BCE 
3.  Uruk Period (city-states, cities, writing, colonialism) 4000-3100 BCE 
4.  Jemdet Nasr (Consolidation of city-states) 3100-2900 BCE 
5.  Early Dynastic (City-state competition) 2900-2370 BCE 
6.  Akkadian Empire (Regional imperialism) 2370-2200 BCE 
7.  Ur III Period (City-states, renewed imperialism) 2200-1900 BCE 
                  
Sites:       
•  Hacinebi  
•  Tepe  
•  Tell Leilan  
•  Tigris River  
•  Euphrates River  
•  Uruk  
•  Ur  
•  Eridu  
•  Tell al'Ubaid  
 
Social and Political complexity  
•  Social complexity: Term used to describe societies with differences in status  
•  Political complexity: Societies for which classes have replaced kin groups in 
organization        
Identifying status in the archaeological record  
•  Inequality in death = inequality in life?   o  Presence of grave goods  
o  Present with children (not old enough to have earned elevated 
status)   •  Differences in house size & furnishings          
background image     Characteristics of politically-complex societies   •  V. Gordon Childe  
•  1950 "The Urban Revolution"  
•  Charles Redman  
     
Characteristics of "The Urban Revolution"  
•  10 by Childe, primary and secondary division by Redman  
Primary: Economic, organizational, demographic  
1.  Cities 
2.  Full-time labor specialization 
3.  State organization (territorial residence) 
4.  Class stratification with ruling stratum 
5.  Concentration of surplus 
Secondary: Document primary criteria   1.  Monumental public works 
2.  Long distance trade 
3.  Writing/record keeping 
4.  Standardized artwork 
5.  Science, mathematics, astronomy 
***Will be on Exam 2!  
 
Reasons for shift to urbanism  
•  Long distance trade 
•  Competition and warfare 
•  Population growth 
•  Irrigation 
•  Power of the temples and elite 
       
(Marsh in extreme southern Mesopotamia, 1974) 
   
The Neolithic: Halaf  
•  9,600-6,300 cal BCE 
•  PPN/PN periods  
•  Halaf culture: 7600-6500 BCE, N. Mesopotamia  
o  Pottery becomes widespread  
o  Trade networks spreading ideas and styles  
      
background image     The Chalcolithic Period   •  "Copper Age" 
•  Between Neolithic and Bronze Age 
•  Period of increasing complexity in both social and political spheres of life 
•  First cities 
•  First experiments with metals 
•  Includes 'Ubaid, Uruk, and Jemdet Nasr periods  
  
The 'Ubaid Period  
•  6,300-4,500 cal BC 
•  Large multiroom mudbrick structures 
•  Painted pottery with geometric designs 
•  Ranked societies, but not yet a state 
•  Period named after Tell al 'Ubaid 
     
Evidence for 'Ubaid Social Complexity  
•  Cylinder seals, tokens 
•  Gradual increase in site size 
•  "Two-tier settlement hierarchy" 
•  Cyclical emergence/ collapse of centers 
•  Differentiation in architecture/burials  
  
'Ubaid: Households and Temples  
•  Household: basic unit of social and economic organization 
•  Specialized temple architecture emerges 
•  Temples are similar to household architecture 
   
Eridu: Growth of Temple Power  
•  Sumerians believed it to be the 1st city  
•  Excavations reveal growth of Enki Temple (over 3000+ years) Name: "House 
of the Waters"   •  Increasing size and elaboration 
•  Temples housed chief deity of each town  
 
Uruk Period: Beginning of Political Complexity  
•  Uruk = name of site and period 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 7 - 28 Feb 2018
Description: These notes cover the slides for week 7 (2/26/18 and 2/28/18)
Uploaded: 02/28/2018
9 Pages 35 Views 28 Unlocks
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