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Mason - HIST 100 - Class Notes - Week 5

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Mason - HIST 100 - Class Notes - Week 5

School: George Mason University
Department: History
Course: History of Western Civilization
Professor: Jessica Legnini
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: hist100
Name: HIST 100, Feb 27-March 1 Class Notes
Description: - Boniface & Philip - Avignon Papacy - Hundred Years War
Uploaded: 03/01/2018
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background image HIST  100  Class  Notes  Feb  27  –  March  1,  2018     Investiture  Conflict    
>  Investiture  of  clerical  offices;  power  of  taxation;  power  invested  in  hands  of  rulers  
to  clergy  men  (church  officials);  Kings  appoint  clergymen  who  are  loyal  to  them    
>  Pope  Gregory  VII  (1073-­‐1085)    
 
-­‐  Pope  maintained  supreme  authority;  Dictaus  Papae  (1075):  official     declaration  he  made  that  stated  that  pope  had  ability  to  get  rid  of  any  lay     ruler  he  didn’t  like,  ultimate  power  resided  in  office  in  pope  not  in     king/emperor         >  Henry  IV  (1056-­‐1106)  
 
-­‐  Authority  w/  king     >  Bishopric  of  Milan  –  catalyst    
-­‐  Gregory  and  Henry  appoint  different  men=  conflict    
-­‐  Insults  exchanged;  Gregory  excommunicated  Henry  and  cut  of  from  church  in  any  
way  (soul  is  condemned  and  wanders  forever)  Gregory  told  people  that  if  they  
supported  Henry  they  too  could  be  in  risk  of  being  excommunicated;  Pope  forbade  
anyone  to  serve  Henry  =  Henry’s  control  over  empire  threatened    
>  Walk  to  Canossa  (1077)  
-­‐  Henry  meets  Gregory  at  Canossa  and  begs  for  forgiveness;  Henry  given  penance  
and  was  welcomed  back  to  church    
>  Concordat  of  Worms  (1122)    
-­‐  Power  swung  to  pope;  the  one  to  appoint,  King  could  be  in  midst  of  appointment  
but  the  decisions  lay  with  pope    
 
France  and  Prelude  to  Avignon  Papacy     Ø   By  early  13 th  century,  power  in  France  was  beginning  to  centralize     Ø   Louis  IX  (r.  1226-­‐1270)     Ø   Conflict  between  France  and  England  resulted  in  taxes  on  clerics  (church  said  
no);  sometimes  in  open  warfare;  had  random  outbursts  of  conflict    
Ø   Boniface  intervened     -­‐  Threat  of  possible  excommunication  of  leaders  how  taxed  clergy  (Papal  
Bull-­‐  declaration)    
Ø   Restrictions  of  Philip  IV:  threat  to  cut  flow  of  French  wealth  to  Italy     Ø   Philip  IV  (1285-­‐1314)  
-­‐  Power  w/  King    
-­‐  made  a  deal  with  church  that  if  in  absolute  need,  king  can  tax  clergy  like  
during  wartime    
Ø   Boniface  (1294-­‐1303)    
-­‐  Pope  held  the  higher  power  (as  he  was  concerned;  I’m  older  I’m  wiser)  
  Philip/  Boniface  and  Prelude  to  Avignon  Papacy     Ø   Philip  detained  bishop  (was  rude  to  Philip)  on  south  of  France  in  1301     Ø   Boniface  opposed:  Philip  had  overstepped     Ø   Angry  words,  papal  bulls,  Ausculta  Fili     Ø   Philip  called  representative  body  in  France  (precursor  to  Estates-­‐General)    
background image Ø   Papal  Bull  (Unam  Sanctum)  &  Philip’s  acusations  of  Boniface;  Boniface  told  
people  that  salvation  is  more  important  &  only  way  tog  et  it  is  through  
Church   Ø   Arrest  of  Boniface  (1303)     Ø   Philip  (&  lay  rule)  won  out    
Avignon  Papacy  
Ø   Following  Pope  Benedict  XI  was  Clement  V-­‐  sympathetic  to  Philip    
-­‐  In  1309,  he  moved  seat  of  the  pontiff  to  Avignon  (was  afraid  he  won’t  be  
heard)  
Ø   Next  six  popes  resided  in  Avignon     Ø   Regal  existence  (harmed  reputation  of  papacy)     Ø   To  pay  for  their  palace  functions,  church  sold:    
-­‐  Pardons,  relics,  offices,  clothes    
Ø   Now  two  Popes  in  office  simultaneously;  one  in  Rome  and  in  Avignon  (Great   Schism)      
Philip  IV  &  The  Knights  Templar  
Ø   Philip  wanted  wealth  from  Templar     Ø   Knights  Templar   -­‐  controlled  much  wealth;  a  secret  group    
-­‐  Philip  accused  them  of  Black  Magic    
Ø   Philip  in  need  of  money  for  war  w/  England  &  kingdom     Ø   Brought  charges  against  knoghts;  approved  by  Clement  V     Ø   Tortured  members  to  get  confessions     Ø   Curse  of  the  Grand  Master  (1314)à  Clement  &  Philip  IV  die  soon  after;  
France  in  bad  condition  &  in  war  plus  Black  Plague  began    
  Hundred  Years;  War  (FRANCE  VS.  ENGLAND)    
Background    
>  Terminology:    
-­‐  Aquitaine:  region  in  SW  France  (area  in  dispute  will  be  called  Gascony)    
 
-­‐  Angevin  Empire  (Plantagnet);  Dynasty  that  ruled  England  (1154-­‐1485)     -­‐  Homage:  Public  declaration  of  pledge  to  overlord;  Alliegences;  if  snapped=  war    
-­‐  Vassal:  person  in  service  to  overlord  (connected  through  system  of  alliegence)    
-­‐  Suzerain:  overlord    
-­‐  Vassalage:  service  to  suzerain;  gain  fief  (land)    
-­‐  Salic  Law:  Frankish  law  preventing  sucession  to  throne  by  a  woman    
-­‐  William  Conqueror  in  1066  produced  complicated  relationship  (England  king  &  
Duke  of  Normadny)    
 
-­‐  English  king  pay  homage  to  French  king     -­‐  Eleanor  of  Aqui  taine    
 
-­‐  Divorced  by  Louis  VII  &  wed  Henry  II,  Duke  of  Normandy  (soon  to  be  king     of  England  in  1154)       -­‐  English  king  ruled  England  &  large  portion  of  France       >  Treaty  of  Paris  (1258):  Louis  IX  and  Henry  III    

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School: George Mason University
Department: History
Course: History of Western Civilization
Professor: Jessica Legnini
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: hist100
Name: HIST 100, Feb 27-March 1 Class Notes
Description: - Boniface & Philip - Avignon Papacy - Hundred Years War
Uploaded: 03/01/2018
4 Pages 23 Views 18 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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