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UOP - CHEM 027 - Class Notes - Week 5

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UOP - CHEM 027 - Class Notes - Week 5

School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: CHEM027
Professor: Dimitry Izotov
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Intermolecular Forces
Name: Chapter 16 Liquids and Solids Notes
Description: Ch 16 Notes
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
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background image Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids 
 
16.1 Intermolecular Forces 
 
Intermolecular forces are weaker forces that occur between molecules. Molecules remain intact 
between changes between states of matter. 
 
Dipole-dipole attraction is when the positive and the negative ends are close to each other.  
 
High boiling points means that there is more energy needed to break and overcome intermolecular 
forces.  
 
London dispersion forces are the weak forces that exist among noble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules 
These are because electrons in atoms move around a lot and they can temporarily have a lot of 
electrons in one area creating a temporary dipole in that instant.  
 
Ch 16.2 The Liquid State 
 
Surface tension is a liquid resisting to increase its surface area. It’s because it takes energy to have the 
molecules move from the interior of the liquid to the surface.  
 
Adhesive forces increase surface area and cohesive forces reduce surface area.  
A molecule with large intermolecular forces is highly viscous. Large molecules also have a high viscosity 
bc these molecules can become entangled with each other.  
 
Ch 16.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids 
 
Two ways to categorize solids: crystalline and amorphous solids. Crystalline is a regular repeating 
pattern of unit cells. Amorphous is an irregular pattern in solids.  
 
X-ray diffraction helps determine the structure of the crystalline solid. Diffraction is when beams of light 
are scattered based on the structure. There’s constructive and destructive interference.  
 
𝐵𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑔 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛: 𝑛(𝑤𝑎𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ) = 2𝑑𝑠𝑖𝑛(𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑡𝑎)   
D is distance between the atoms and the theta is the angle of incidence and reflection. 
 
There’s molecular solids, ionic solids, and atomic solids. Their internal properties are what determine 
that nature of the solid.  
 
16.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals 
 
FCC (ccp) involves the abc arrangement. The hcp structure has a face centered cubic cell.    
 
Example on p 824 
 
Pythagorean theorem     e
2 +e 2  = (4r) 2    
background image Bonding in most metals is strong and nondirectional. 
 
An alloy is best defined as a substance that contains a mixture of elements and has metallic properties. 
Substitutional alloys have host atoms replaced by other atoms of the same size. The interstitial alloy has 
holes in the metal structure filled by small atoms.  
 
Atomic solids have strong directional covalent bonds. These substances are called network solids.  
 
Carbons occurs in various forms known as allotropes.  
 
For conductors, there’s a small gap between the filled and the empty levels so the electrons can jump 
around, resulting in current flow. For insulators such as diamond, the gap between the filled and the 
empty levels is large.  
 
The most stable silicon compounds involve chains with silicon oxygen bonds.  
 
Glasses are homogenous noncrystalline structures. Ceramics are heterogenous structures.    
 
N type semiconductors are more conductive than p type electrons. N type has more electrons.  
 
P-N junction: electrons migrate from the n type region into the p type region. This creates a junction 
potential.  
Forward bias is when the junction has low resistance and the current flows easily. 
 
The p-n junction makes a great rectifier which is a device producing direct current.  
 
16.6. Molecular Solids 
 
There’s strong covalent bonding within the molecules but relatively weak forces between the molecules.  
 
16.7 Ionic Solids 
 
Packing in these kinds of solids is done so that their electrostatic attractions are optimized while 
minimizing the repulsions among ions with like charges.  
 
3 types of holes in FCC structures: Trigonal, tetrahedral, and octahedral 
Trigonal: 3 spheres in the same layer. Tetrahedral: put a sphere on top of the three spheres in the same 
layer Octahedral: 2 sets of three spheres next to each other  
 
16.8 Structures of Actual Ionic Solids 
 
In FCC, there are twice as many tetrahedral holes as there are packed spheres.  
 
16.9 Lattice Defects 
 
Point defects are missing particles. Schottky defects.  
 
Crystals where particles moved to other positions are called Frankel defects. 

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School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: CHEM027
Professor: Dimitry Izotov
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Intermolecular Forces
Name: Chapter 16 Liquids and Solids Notes
Description: Ch 16 Notes
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
3 Pages 18 Views 14 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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