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AU - NTRI 2000 - Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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AU - NTRI 2000 - Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Ramesh Jeganathan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Exam 2.
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
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background image Exam 2 Study Guide  Digestion of Fats and oils Mouth and Stomach Salivary glands- secrete salivary lipase  o Begins the breakdown of fats Stomach – secrete enzyme gastric lipase o Activated by an acidic environment
o Acts on Triglycerides with shorts- (and medium) chain
fatty acids o Limited contribution to digestion Small Intestine o SI is primary site of fat digestion TG’s broken down by lipases to monoglyceride 
and Fas
o Requires: Bile acid from gallbladder Emulsifies fat o Hormone- cholecystokinin (CCK) Released from enterocytes in response to Fas 
in chime
Triglycerides – glycerol and fatty acids Phospholipids- glycerol, fatty acids o Absorption of fat 95% of fat is absorbed into enterocytes of the 
SI
Short and medium chain Fas o Enter the portal system directly
o Sent to the liver to be repackaged 
in Fas Carrying fat in the bloodstream Water  Lipoproteins: Fat transport system in blood; contain a core of lipids with 
a shell composed of protein, phospholipid, cholesterol
Classified into 4 group based on density: Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL o VLDL triglycerides and become smaller and turn into  LDL o Chylomicrons carry triglycerides  Transportation of Absorbed Fatty Acids After absorption of dietary fats in the SI: o Reformed into TGs
o Packaged into chylomicrons
background image Largest lipoproteins; made in the enterocyte Contains dietary fat o Lipoprotein lipase on capillary walls Breaks down TGs in chylomicrons into Fas and 
glycerol
Fas absorbed by cells, glycerol circulates 
back to liver
Chylomicron remnant remains Delivered to the liver  Transportation of synthesized Lipids (what the body makes) Liver takes up lipids, but also manufactures lipids and 
cholesterol
Synthesized lipids – packaged into lipoproteins for 
transport to body tissues
Lipoproteins MADE by liver: o Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) (bad) Rich in TGs also contains cholesterol Made in the liver; carries endogenous (body 
made) lipids
Lipoprotein lipase: breaks down TG into Fas and
glycerol
Fas taken up by tissues, glycerol taken 
back to liver
As TGs are released, VLDL becomes 
proportionally more and more cholesterol, 
becoming LDL
o Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)(bad) Contain primarily the remaining cholesterol 
from VLDL
Transports cholesterol to tissues LDL particles taken up by liver cells and other 
tissues to release cholesterol
o High-Density Protein (HDL)(good) High proportion of protein- densest lipoprotein Liver and intestine produce most HDL Function: Pick up cholesterol from cells and other 
sources for incorporation into other 
lipoproteins and transport back to the 
liver to be excreted
Basically, HDL removes cholesterol (a 
good thing!)
o Lowering LDL Decrease fat and cholesterol consumption
background image Increase MUFA and PUFA Increase dietary fiber (soluble) o Raising HDL Regular physical activity Moderate intake of alcohol Red wine High dose niacin  Omega-6 Fatty Acid Role in brain development and other function Vegetable oils, processed/fried foods, corn oil, etc. Only need o 2-4 tablespoons a day Health-related Effects of EFAs Arachidonic acid (omega-6) o Increase blood clotting
o Increase inflammation
DHA, EPA (Omega-3) o Decrease blood clotting Reduce heart attack risk o Decrease inflammation Functions of Lipids: Provide Energy o Main fuel at rest/light activity
o CHO intense activity
Efficient storage of energy o Mainly as Triglycerides  
o Essentially limitless storage
Only store a little CHO, can store A LOT of 
Triglycerides
o Advantage energy dense (9 kcal) Insulation and Protection o Provides warmth in cold climates
o Layer of fat surrounds tissue to cushion organs 
Transport fat-soluble vitamins o Carry vitamins; aids in absorption  Phospholipids  o Cell membranes and emulsifiers Cholesterol o Hormones, structural component of cells, bile acids  Provides feeling of satiety and fullness  Provides flavor and mouth feel  o More fat = taste better  Recommendations for Fat Intake No RDA

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School: Auburn University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Ramesh Jeganathan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for Exam 2.
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
8 Pages 39 Views 31 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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