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UF - AST 1002 - Class Notes - UF - Discover the Universe - AST1002

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UF - AST 1002 - Class Notes - UF - Discover the Universe - AST1002

School: University of Florida
Department: Astronomy
Course: Discovering the Universe
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: astronomy, UF, Spring2018, AST1002, star, sun, planet, Jupiter, moon, galileo, io, europa, Ganymede, calisto, sphere, Small, module6, notes, and Lecture
Name: UF - Discover the Universe - AST1002 Spring 2018 - Module 6 Lecture Notes
Description: Covers all of the module 6 lecture
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
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background image Enough self-gravity to be spherical Are now or were geologically active Have substantial amounts of ice Large are >200 in diameter Medium and large moons mostly formed at the same time as their planets - Small moons are mostly captured asteroids and comets - What kind of moons orbit the Jovian planets? We are still discovering moons since smaller moons are more difficult to see. We discovered a 
new moon around Neptune in 2013. 
< 200 km  Irregular in shape Undifferentiated Elliptical orbits and are unorganized  63 small moons - >3000 km Spherical Differentiated Orbit close to the planet in very circular orbit 4 Galilean Moons - Jupiter's Moons (67) Io  - Europa - Ganymede - Callisto (most heavily cratered object in the Solar System) - Io, Europa, Ganymede align  - Tidal heating: Squished and stretched as it orbits Jupiter which heats it and allows an ocean 
(mostly affects Io and Europa)
- Galilean Moons (in order of closest to Jupiter) Each Jovian planet formed its own "miniature" solar nebula.  The density of moons decrease as we move farther from Jupiter.  Volcanically active with active eruptions and pools of molten sulfur. It is the most 
volcanically active world in the solar system
- Hot, molten interior (silicates and sulfur) - Orbital period 1.8 days - Io  Icy surface covering a large rocky core - Surface is very young and smooth.  - Fractured into ice rafts and floes a few km across - Repaved by water or slush that geysers through cracks in the ice - Liquid ocean under a warm slush under a layer of ice - Europa Module 6 Wednesday, February 21, 2018 11:01 AM     Notes Page 1    
background image Liquid ocean under a warm slush under a layer of ice - Orbit Jupiter Fly by Europa many times Europa Clipper - Orbital period 2x Io's period - Solar system's largest moon - Thick ice mantle over rocky core - Grooved terrain with "stretch marks" - Orbital period is 4x Io's period - Ganymede Outermost Galilean moon - Heavily cratered, dirty ice surface - Inactive - Craters are bright with clean ice - Ice layered on rocky core - Orbital period is 16.7 days - Calisto Large earth and Venus have hot interiors - Smaller mercury and mars have cold interiors - In the terrestrial planets, interior heat is determined by the planet's size (energy source = cooling 
after formation + radioactive decay): 
In the Galilean moons, interior heat is determined by proximity to Jupiter. Io is the hottest, 
outermost Calisto is the closest. Energy source --> tidal heating
Io and Europa are mostly rock and are higher in density compared to Ganymede and Calisto 
because they are closer to Jupiter. 
Ganymede and Calisto are mixed ice and rock 62 with confirmed orbits. The smaller moons are mostly icy and are all heavily cratered 
with ancient surfaces. Most of them are irregular in shape.
- 1 giant moon, Titan  - Moons of Saturn Similar size, mass, and density of Calisto - Made mostly of ice and rock - Even though it is large, since it has a low density it also have a low mass.  - Only moon with substantial atmosphere (1.5 atm) with a composition of 80% nitrogen. 
There are clouds of methane and nitrogen ices. There is a thin detached hydrocarbon haze 
layer above main atmosphere which protects from UV radiation. 
- Very cold  - Liquid methane and ethane with a methane/ethane cycle. Ethane and methane condense and 
fall as rain
- Cryovolcanoes are ice volcanoes  - Titan Asteroids are the remnants from the formation of the terrestrial planets and are mostly 
made of metal and rock. Most of them are in the asteroid belt located between the orbits of 
Mars and Jupiter. 
- Asteroids      Notes Page 2    

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School: University of Florida
Department: Astronomy
Course: Discovering the Universe
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: astronomy, UF, Spring2018, AST1002, star, sun, planet, Jupiter, moon, galileo, io, europa, Ganymede, calisto, sphere, Small, module6, notes, and Lecture
Name: UF - Discover the Universe - AST1002 Spring 2018 - Module 6 Lecture Notes
Description: Covers all of the module 6 lecture
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
4 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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