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BYU-I - PSYCH 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

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BYU-I - PSYCH 111 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Cluff
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology, psych, and psych111
Name: Ch. 10
Description: These notes and chapter are what is going to be on the upcoming exam
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
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background image Ch: 10 Development: Developmental psychology: the study of continuity and change across the
life span.
Prenatal Development: Zygote: a fertilized egg o Each human sperm and egg has 23 chromosomes
o The 23
rd  is X and Y o 23 rd  is always X, but sperm can be either. This depends on sex of baby.  If egg is fertilized by a sperm that has Y, it’s a male (XY) but if fertilized
with an X, you get female (XX)
Germinal Stage: the 2-week period of prenatal development that begins at 
conception
o the zygote cell divides itself
o During the germinal stage, the zygote goes back down the fallopian 
tube and puts itself in the uterus wall.  o Only half of zygotes make it, because they are defective or they don’t  implant themselves on a stable part of the uterus. Embryonic Stage: a period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2 nd   week until about the 8 th  week. o Once the zygote implants itself securely on the wall, this becomes an  embryo.  o The embryo continues to divide and build structures of the body. 
o 1 in long embryo has a heartbeat, arms, legs, etc.
o Male embryo starts to produce testosterone 
Fetal Stage: the period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9 th   week until birth (week 40) o The fetus develops a skeleton and muscles, develops insulating fat,  cells that become the brain divide and generate axons and dendrites. Myelination: formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a  neuron. Insulates the brain cell to prevent leakage of neural signs that 
travel along the axon.
o Our species has the talent to adapt to any environment.  Prenatal Environment: The placenta is the organ that physically links the bloodstreams of the 
mother and the embryo or fetus and permits the exchange of 
chemicals; food moms eat can affect their child.
Studies show that children liked what their mother ate during 
pregnancy. 
background image Teratogens: “monster makers” can cause lower birth weights and deficits in
attention and learning. Can cause health, mental, and physical problems for 
newborns.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a developmental disorder caused  by heavy alcohol use during pregnancy.  o Tabaco is another teratogen. The baby can hear and recognize the mothers voice, tends to suck on 
nipple more when hearing her voice.
If mother is bilingual, the baby will like each voice.  What newborns hear influences. When born, their cry mimics their 
mother’s language or dialect.
Infancy: The stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 
18 and 24 months. 
Perceptual and Motor development Habitation is the tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to 
a stimulus the more frequently they are exposed to it, and infants 
habituate just like the rest of us do. 
Newborns are shows to mimic facial expressions their very first hour of 
life, and mimic speech sounds in 12 weeks. Newborns have poor sight, 
but habituate to visual stimiuli.
Motor development: the emergence of the ability to execute physical
actions such as reaching, crawling, walking, grasping.
Motor behavior starts with reflexes: specific patterns of motor 
response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation. 
(sucking reflexes help babies feed)
Rooting reflex: tendency for infants to move their mouths  toward any object that touches their cheek Sucking reflex: the tendency to suck any object that enters  their mouths.  Cephalocaudal rule: (top-to-bottom rule) the tendency for motor 
behavior to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet.
Proximodistical rule: (inside-to-outside rule) which describes the 
tendency for motor behavior to emerge in sequence from the center to
the periphery. Infants learn to control their trunks before their elbows 
and knees, which they learn to control before their hands and feet.
Cognitive development:     the emergence of the ability to think and  understand. o Between infancy and adulthood, kids must come to understand 3 important things: (a) how the world works, (b) how their minds 
represent that world, (c) how other minds represent that world.
background image Discovering the World: Piaget suggested that cognitive development 
occurs in four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and 
the formal
. (put more details  on these four stages)
 Sensorimotor stage: a period of development that begins at birth 
and lasts through infancy. 
o Infants are busy using their ability to sense and move Schemas: theories about of the way the world works. Assimilation: the process by which infants apply their schemas in 
novel situations
Example: If infant learns that tugging at a stuffed animal causes it to come closer, then that observation is incorporated into the 
infant’s theory about how physical objects behave when pulled, 
and the infant can later use that theory when he or she wants a 
different object to come closer. 
Accommodation: the process by which infants revise their schemas 
to take new information into account. 
Example: If the child knows that objects come closer if pulled,  that theory changes the moment they pull on the cat’s tail, see 
that it goes away from the child. They then revise their schemas 
to see that inanimate things can come closer, but animate go 
away from. 
Object permanence: the belief that objects exist even when they are 
not visible. 
o But modern study suggests that infants may acquire a sense of  object permanence much earlier than Piaget realized.  o Impossible event with drawbridge example: show that infants  can have an understanding of object permanence by 4 months 
old. 
Discovering the Mind  Childhood: the stage of development that begins at about 18 to 24 
months and lasts until about 11 to 14 years. 
 Preoperational stage: the stage of cognitive development that 
begins at 2 years and ends at 6 years, during which children develop a 
preliminary understanding of the physical world. 
 Concrete operational stage: the stage of cognitive development 
that begins at 6 years and ends at 11 years, during which children 
learn how actions or “operations” can transform the “concrete” objects
of the physical world.
o  Piaget’s milk experiment, two glasses of milk equally  poured into each, once put in a tall glass, the 
preoperational children said the cylinder had more milk.
background image o Piagets egg experiment: Preoperational children  incorrectly reported that there were now more eggs 
than cups, based on the length of eggs next to the cups. 
Concrete operational children correctly reported that
the number of eggs did not change. They understand the 
quantity of water or clay doesn’t change despite the 
objects appearance: (Conservation)
o Preoperational children do not fully grasp the notions of  conservation is that they can’t grasp the fact that they 
have minds and that they contain mental representations 
of the world. 
Formal Operational stage: the final stage of cognitive development 
that begins around the age of 11, during which children learn to reason
about abstract concepts. 
Discovering Other Minds Egocentrism: the failure to understand that the world appears 
different to different people. Until 6 year old, they have difficulty 
understand the emotional behavior. They are egos until this age. 3 
year olds think you are seeing what they are seeing (study) 
False belief task (Wimmer and Perner): Puppet show where one 
character hides chocolate in a drawer, and a different character finds it
and hides it in a different drawer. 
5-year-old: The first character will look in the spot where she  initially hid it. 3-year-old: will think the character will look in the new hiding  spot because the children know where it is.  Theory of mind: the understanding that other people’s mental 
representations guide their behavior. 
o Influenced by number of siblings, language skills, and other  factors. Two groups of children lag far behind in acquiring a theory of 
mind
:
Autism: difficultly communicating, making friends, they don’t  seem to have an understanding of belief based emotions such as
embarrassment or shame. 
Deaf children whose parents don’t know ASL Piaget thought children graduated from one stage to another. Yet now 
we can see that a child can behavior more maturely than other days. 
More like changing seasons than graduating. 
Children acquire many abilities as Piaget described, however, much 
earlier than he realized. 
Discovering Our Cultures

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Cluff
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology, psych, and psych111
Name: Ch. 10
Description: These notes and chapter are what is going to be on the upcoming exam
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
16 Pages 53 Views 42 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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