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FIU - exp 4604 - Class Notes - Week 8

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Schools > Florida International University > OTHER > exp 4604 > FIU - exp 4604 - Class Notes - Week 8

FIU - exp 4604 - Class Notes - Week 8

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background image Week 8: 02/26/18 - 02/30/18 
● Metacomprehension ​ - another form of metacognition (the other being metamemory);  how you comprehend language (e.g. did you understand the concept of meta-memory)  ○ Pressley & Ghatala ​ - had students read passage, answer questions, and rate  confidence without a delay. Results showed that when people were correct they 
were on average 73% confident whereas when they were incorrect they were 64% 
confident; pattern of confidence and accuracy is a straight line 
○ Improving Metacomprehension  ■ Uses delays during studying 
■ Periodically checking comprehension 
● Assessing Metacognition - Suggestions  ○ 1. Before reading an assignment assess how carefully the material should be read 
○ 2. Consider how accurate you will be in performing on exam questions and 
restructure studying plan based on how correct you were  ○ 3. After you read a short section, summarize it 
○ 4. Test yourself on new terms learned in a chapter 
○ 5. Draw connections about ideas in textbook 
○ 6. Draw connections between ideas in book and class 
○ 7. Looking up terms you don’t know in the dictionary  
  Starting Chapter 8 - General Knowledge ​ - Structure of Long Term Memory (as compared to  performance of LTM) 
● Semantic Memory ​ - Organized knowledge about the world and language   ○ Not Episodic/autobiographical ​ - e.g. “I remember my first day at FIU” is not  semantic memory; “I attend FIU” would be however  ○ Allows you to make inferences ​ - e.g. “When Lisa was on her way back from the  store with the balloon, she fell and the balloon floated away”. We can infer that 
she let go of the balloon, that Lisa is a girl, that she went to the store, etc. 
● Category ​ - group of objects that have something in common or belong together  ● Concept ​ - mental representation of a category  ● Exemplar ​ -  an instance of a category  ● Prototype ​ - the best exemplar, the most typical member of a category  ● “Classical” Categorization  ○ Category is list of necessary and sufficient properties 
○ Everything that fits belongs in the category 
○ E.g. a grandfather has to be 1.) male and 2.) father of a father 
background image ○ Doesn’t hold water because a bachelor could be called an unmarried male but  then a male child or the pope could be a bachelor which must people would 
disagree with 
○ Typicality: some members of categories are better exemplars than others (e.g.  robin is better example of a bird than an ostrich)  ● Prototype Approach  ○ Average qualities of a category; not a specific real object 
○ In the bird example, a robin would have high prototypicality and an ostrich would 
have lower prototypicality  ○ Typicality Effect ​ - people agree on which exemplars are most typical and are  faster at identifying typical examples than atypical examples (e.g. Fruit: apple vs 
○ Semantic Priming Effect  ​- response is faster if item was preceded by an item  with a similar meaning  ○ Family Resemblance ​ - Category members have a “family resemblance” - no  universal characteristics but each member shares at least one attribute in common 
with some others 
○ “Chair, Sofa, Bookshelf, Table, Mirror” - Sofa, chair, and table are all  prototypical of the furniture category; a mirror could still belong in this category 
however even though it does not share as many features 
● Exemplar Approach ​ - Similar to Prototype Approach  ○ Classifies stimuli by comparing them to numerous exemplars 
○ Similar to the Template Theory of memory 
○ No abstract model or prototype; just a list of examples 
● Comparison of Prototype and Exemplar  ○ Both compare new items to stored representations 
○ Prototype has abstract average of all exemplars 
○ Exemplar is just a collection of numerous examples 
○ For smaller categories, using the Exemplar approach might be better (e.g. tropical 
fruits) but for larger categories using the Prototype approach might be more useful 
because of the average representation 
● Levels of Categorization  Level  Definition  Example  Superordinate  Most general, global  Fruit  Basic  Moderately specific  Apple  Subordinate  Very specific  Granny Smith apple, Fuji  ○ E.g. Furniture → Chair → Lawn Chair 

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School: Florida International University
Department: OTHER
Course: Cognitive Science
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: cognitive and Psychology
Name: Week 8 Notes
Description: Notes for Week 8 covering last new material before exam
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
4 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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