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UCONN / Geography / GEOG 1200 / How to use science to make cities healthier?

How to use science to make cities healthier?

How to use science to make cities healthier?

Description

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Geography
Course: The City in Western Tradition
Professor: Joshua regan
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: GEOG 1200 - Exam 2 Study
Description: Comprehensive study guide of topics that will be covered in upcoming exam.
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
26 Pages 39 Views 4 Unlocks
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GEOG 1200


How to used science to make cities healthier?



Exam 2 Study Guide

Early Cities (Cities of the Ancient World)

A. Early Civilization

a. Herding Society: Migrating for Food → No Permanent Civilization B. The Start of Urbanization

a. 3,500 BC things changed in Mesopotamia

i. Domestication of Animals

1. Viable sources of food

2. 13/14 large animals were domesticated in Mesopotamia


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3. Included:

a. Ox

b. Horse

c. Pig

d. Sheep (first animal to be domesticated)

4. Only large animal that was not first domesticated in

Mesopotamia was the Llama (domesticated in South

America)

C. Mesopotamia

a. Land between two rivers

b. Cradle of human civilization

c. Modern-day =Iraq

D. The First City

a. Ur: The First City

i. 220 Acres

ii. 30,000 people

b. Sumerians: Residents of Ur

E. Causal Factors of Early Urbanization

1. Geography: AKA Good Soil

a. Area around Mesopotamia called the “Fertile Crescent”


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We also discuss several other topics like What are the non­ visual senses?

b. More food supports a larger population

2. Water

a. Functions

1. Survival

2. Trade

a. Water also nurtures more trade

i. Trade sees innovations to improve the city

3. Defense

b. Civilizations have collapsed from lack of water

c. Key ingredient to establish a city

d. Water has been a cause of the collapse of some cities when they run out (i.e; the Pueblo people)

3. City Centers

a. The “Ziggurat”

i. (In ancient Mesopotamia) a rectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by a temple. Ziggurats are first

attested in the late 3rd millennium BC and probably

inspired the biblical story of the Tower of Babel (Gen.

11:1–9).

b. Barter System. No Coinage yet.

i. Egypt was the first to develop coinage system.

ii. Cities would trade goods/resources with other cities (Barter System)

4. Stable State Institutions

a. Without government;

i. There is no laws, regulations

ii. State collapse

iii. i.e; Somalia

b. Without an agency to oversee the laws, the city would not function

c. Mesopotamia was comprised of city-states If you want to learn more check out What is a blastula in biology?
We also discuss several other topics like What is sensation and perception?

i. Each city-state had their own laws and policies

ii. Two examples today:

1. Vatican City

2. Singapore (one of the most urbanized cities in the

world, 100% of the residents reside in an urban

setting)

5. Recordkeeping

a. Record of laws, taxes, and food supplies

b. A need for a system of writing

c. 3,000 BC the “Cuneiform” was developed by the Sumerian’s. This was the first system of writing.

i. Also developed algebra

6. Specialized Workforce

a. Early cities in Mesopotamia needed 10 farmers to supply food for 1 household

b. Good soil was key component in establishing a city, created need for farmers (etc.)

c. Food Production = More People = Increases in the Labor-Force = More GDP

d. New Professions

i. Bakers

ii. Tool Makers

iii. Architects

iv. Artists

v. With more people, a larger army could be supported 7. Advancements in Technology

a. Environmental Determinism: Ability to adapt to the land or environment. If you want to learn more check out What is the purpose of the endocrine system?

i. i.e.; if you live in a desert, you develop ways to get access to water

ii. Started with Mesopotamia, they started to learn ways to adapt to the land

b. Mesopotamia:

i. Invented the wheel to improve and increase trade

ii. Invented the plow to increase food production

iii. Invented the water irrigation system, to move water from one place to another

iv. Developed food storage units so they could have access to viable food sources at any time

8. Defensible Walls

a. Function:

i. Protection of citizens and economic industries

1. Made the city resistant to outside forces or

invaders.

b. Consequence:

i. Created class divisions

ii. Later on within Mesopotamia, the wealthy citizens lived within the walls and the poorer citizens had to live on the outside.

c. Walls Today

i. Quebec City, Canada

ii. Dubrovnik, Croatia

iii. Dublin, Ireland

F. Flaws of Mesopotamia

1. No Central Planning

a. Was not able to support services that were required If you want to learn more check out What is meant by approximation?

2. Not Enough Water

a. Did not have enough water to support a continuous population growth.

b. Wells eventually went dry

3. Competition Intensified between City-States

a. Resources

b. Territory

c. Result …. War

d. United city-states became Empires

G. The First Empire

a. Ancient Egypt

i. Like Mesopotamia, comprised of city-states

ii. 2 large city-states

1. In Lower Egypt & Upper Egypt

b. Pharaoh Menes (2,925 B.C.)

i. Decides to unify the 2 large city-states and create an Empire c. Similar to Mesopotamia, the Egyptians made many Urban contributions Don't forget about the age old question of Is deadweight loss good or bad?

H. Urban Advancements: Egypt

1. City Designed for “Most” Residents, not just the Elite

a. Tried to minimize the class rivalries, unlike the class segregation of Mesopotamia

2. Created the First Suburb

a. Adopted an American type on concept

b. Overcrowding caused some people to settle outside the city, creating suburbs

3. Salt Manufacturing

a. Function

i. Medicine

ii. Food Preservation

iii. Human Preservation

1. “A man ain’t worth his salt”

4. Cemeteries

5. Sail Power

6. Regional (i.e., international) Trade

a. Timbuktu

7. A System of Coinage AKA the Shat

I. The Decline of Ancient Egypt

1. Lukkhan Pirates

a. Outside forces

b. Sabotaged Egyptian vessels

c. Robbed the Egyptians of their coinage, raid coastal ports d.

2. Greece

a. 322 BC, Egypt was conquered by Alexander the Great

J. Ancient Greece

a. Ancient Greece reverted back to Mesopotamia’s city-states b. City of self-rule - AKA “polis”

K. Urban Advancements: Greece

1. Democracy

a. Only open to men

2. Forum

a. Only open to elected representatives

3. Expansion of Maritime Trade

a. New technologies

4. Public Markets: “The Agora”

5. Manufacturing

a. Leading manufacturer / exporter of pottery 580 BC - 432 BC 6. State Healthcare

a. A healthy city is a productive city

7. Municipal Dump

a. No garbage allowed within one mile of the city

8. Museums

a. “Muses”: A place of learning

b. A place of understanding, reflection.

c. Learning from our history and evolving from that.

9. The Olympic Games (776 BC)

a. Held in Olympia

b. The Amphitheater

i. The first, so called, “Public” Arena

ii. Mastered acoustics, so (sound-wise), everyone had a good seat and could hear what was going on

c. Modern games - 1896

i. 200 athletes from 14 nations

d. 2016: Rio Games

i. 11,300 athletes

ii. 206 nations

10.Urban Planning

a. Greeks tried to build most cities on a hill: defense

i. You could overlook your surrounding areas

ii. Made it more difficult to invade, or overthrow

b. Acropolis = Upper City

c. Cities lacked organization, including Athens

d. Hippodamus - The First Greek Urban Planner

i. Achievements

1. Studied the flaws of the city

a. Looked at prior cities, make notes

b. “This is the harpy of our empire”

c. By knowing the flaws and mistakes of a city,

you can make improvements

d. Designed a city to be sustainable, allowed for

healthy growth, infrastructurally sound

2. Developed ways to promote sustainable growth

3. Found suitable locations for new cities

4. Redesigned cities in a grid system

e. Aristotle

i. One of Hippodamus’ biggest critics

ii. Did not believe that Hippodamus could achieve the city

that he envisioned

L. Urban Planning

a. New cities had a rectangular grid system

b. Benefits

i. Universal Parcels

1. Eliminated disagreements

2. Everyone had the same amount of land

3. Clear lines where land was divided

ii. Clear Urban Zones

1. Areas that were allocated for; military, farming, etc.

2. Able to organize and move resources much more

efficiently

iii. An easier means to buy and sell land

c. Three Zones:

1. Sacred Holy Sites

a. Places of reflection, attributed to the gods

2. Public Area of Commerce

a. An “Agora” or market

b. Without economics, there is no true “heart” of the city

3. Private Land

a. For agriculture production

b. Allocated to government for military training

c. Land that is roped off to others for some sort of purpose d. Three Groups:

i. Hippodamus wanted to build the city with 3 groups in mind 1. Farmers

a. When the city is built, they needed to make sure that

farmland was preserved

2. Soldiers

a. Needed areas for training and for housing

3. Artisans

a. The Greeks believed in nurturing education, encouraging technological advancements.

b. More or less inventors who created things or presented

ideas that improved the city

e. Cities had Four Essentials

1. Governing Institutions

a. Critical element in the city

b. Without government, there is now law

c. No policies and procedures that can be passed

2. Wide / Organized Streets

a. Allowed people in commerce to move easier

b. Helped minimize disease, and the spread of disease

3. Public Spaces

a. To appease constituents

b. Theatres, parks, etc.

4. A Military Barrack

a. Trained soldiers to protect the city

f. Often referred to as ​Hellenistic

i. Cities developed the same

M. City Planning in Action

a. Emphasis

b. Miletus (Significance?)

i. Where we got the idea of the mile from

c. Olynthus

N. Ancient Rome

a. Greece was declining…

b. Greece fell to the Romans in 146 BC in the Battle of Corinth c. Rome had expanded its empire conquering the Mediterranean i. 50 BC conquered Egypt

ii. 230 AD had encompassed Mediterranean Sea

d. Early settlers of London

O. Legend of Rome

a. Two brothers: Romulus and Remus

i. It is believed that the two brothers were raised by wolves ii. Sibling rivalry

b. Romulus kills Remus

i. In his pride of the defeat of his brother, he names a city after himself, “Rome”

P. Urban Advancements: Rome

1. Public Forums

a. The largest Piazza was “The Forum”

b. From Greek idea, but made the forums public

c. Some of these forums took place in buildings, others in public spaces outside

2. Expansion of Public Space: “Piazza”

a. Decided to create large open spaces

3. Established a Judicial System

a. Jury

i. The Romans were the first to use a jury system

ii. Mostly comprised of senators and landlords (Today,

comprised of your peers)

b. Subpoena

i. A document saying that one must show up, and/or testify c. A place where you can plead your case and have your voice heard

4. Taxation System: “Pries”

a. First to develop a taxation system

b. Used to create stadiums, aqueducts, etc.

c. Idea of taxation was called a “Pries”

5. Salt: “The Common Salt”

a. Viewed as a form of luxury, a sign of wealth in most civilizations b. Each person awarded 25g

i. Romans believed that everyone should have access, and allocated an equal amount to all citizens.

c. Medicine

d. Salted Pork: “Salami”

e. Salted Greens: “Salad”

f. The Wage: “Salary”

i. Why use a currency, when you can pay someone in salt. ii. “A man isn’t worth his salt”

g. “Salvation”

6. Food Rationing: “Dole”

a. Developed a food rationing policy

b. A lot of these were institutionally based policies

7. City Blocks

a. Rectangles to squares

i. The Romans didn’t like the rectangles, so these used squares, which were equally measured on all sides

b. The Square (aka Insula) = 80 sq. yds.

8. Concrete and Mortar

a. They developed suitable building material

b. The earliest concrete/mortar was made from chalk that came from Britannia

9. The Arch

a. A very impressive design that is still used today

b. The weight on top presses down and keeps the structure fully intact

10.The Dome

a. Impressive architectural feat

11.Taller Buildings (5-6 stories) and Sporting Venues a. Colosseum, built in 70 AD, was the tallest building (180 feet) b. The Mesopotamians made 2 story building, the first of its kind c. Circus Maximus

d. Idea of sporting venues came from Greeks

e. Greeks used it for the celebration of culture and friendly competition

f. Romans used it as entertainment (for the poor), to make the people happy, and to please their constituents

12.Gladiator Games

a. A source of entertainment for the poor

b. “Lodus”: Gladiator School

c. Colosseum: A Modern Stadium

i. Flood gates for naval battles

ii. Souvenir shops

iii. Elevators

iv. A retractable roof

13.Roads and Bridges

a. Mileage Signs

b. Drainage System

c. “All roads lead to Rome”

14.Water Delivery

a. The Aqueduct

i. Appia Aqueduct (312 BC)

b. Lead Pipes

c. By 230 Ad, there were 12-14 aqueducts providing a surplus of 2 billion gallons of fresh water

i. As far away as 60 miles

15.Modern Sewage System

a. Eliminating waste = eliminating disease

b. Making the city healthier

16.The Spa

a. Bath, England; one of the most famous spas

b. It Included:

i. Changing Rooms

ii. A Sauna

iii. Cool-Water Pools

iv. Day Spa Treatments

17.Castras

a. Fortified cities along trade routes

i. Dontain military barracks

ii. Als conducive for trade

iii. Established along highways that the Romans established iv. Mostly run by military men, who had no families (no other obligations)

b. The “Castle”

i. A fortified fort in the medieval era

c. Timgad, Algeria

i. Roman Colonial City

ii. Contained one of the most famous Castras

d. Castras

i. Contents:

1. Walls

2. Four Gates

3. A Barracks

4. A Place of Trade

Q. Characteristics of Roman Cities

a. Walls

i. Castras as well as many Roman Cities

b. Architecture

i. Ornate architecture is a sign of pride, luxury, wealth, strength, etc.

c. Housing

i. Domus: The Rich

1. Homes largely oriented towards the wealthy and elite

citizens

2. Many of the homes had their own running water supply,

one story homes with their own atrium, private baths,

servants, etc.

ii. Insulae: The Middle Class

1. The working population

2. Dorm-style living

3. Many people comprised in one building, sharing the same facilities

R. Population Trends of Rome

a. Such Advancements;

i. A Population Explosion

ii. Rome: First City to Reach 1 Million People

1. No other urban area had achieved that yet

S. Fall of Rome

a. Governing Rome Became Difficult

i. They didn’t have even resources or man power

ii. The empire was no longer manageable

b. Outside Threats:

i. Barbarians

ii. Cilician Pirates

1. Plagued the waters in the Mediterranean

2. Loot merchant ships

3. Kidnap people

a. At one point, Julius Caesar (released after 38 days

when a ransom was paid)

c. 284 AD Rome Splits

i. Splits in half

d. 476 AD Rome Falls

e. A “Dark” Era Approaches: “The Dark Ages”

i. With the collapse of the Roman Empire, a new era emerges ii. The “Medieval” Period

T. Overview of Rome

a. Civil war

b. Safe haven for ambitious outcasts

U. Ancient Cities of China

a. Highly organized like Greece and Rome

b. The city of Chang’an had an estimated population of 7 million in 7th century AD.

V. ​China’s Advancements

a. Compass

i. Able to track and transport supplies on time

b. Maritime Trade

i. Sailed around the world before the Europeans

c. Modern-Day Rocketree

d. Modern-Day Gun Powder

e. Paper Manufacturing

i. First to develop paper manufacturing

f. First to Develop Paper Money

g. Salt

i. Important resource in the ancient world

ii. Had a substantial supply of salt

iii. Used it for their on economic advantages

iv. In China, salt was viewed as a business opportunity

v. 800 BC: The First Business Monopoly

1. The first application of a monopoly industry

2. They controlled 100% of the salt industry

3. Controlled salt price

vi. Money from salt industry financed The Great Wall of China 1. USed to defend against Mongols

W. Cities of China

a. Same Characteristics as Western Cities

i. Walls/ Gates

ii. Grid System

1. Replicated from Greeks and Romans

iii. Wide Streets

1. Improve the flow of trade

2. Decrease spread of disease

b. Similar Challenges

i. Unsustainable Growth

1. Cities were growing rapidly

2. Did not have enough resources to provide for growing

city

ii. Lack of Clean Water

c. Difference

i. Castle vs. Imperial City

1. Were no castles

X. China’s Urban Advancements

a. Trade Cities

i. Silk Road

1. Believed to be the same road that the Bubonic Plague

traveled on

ii. Nurtured a military and a economic trade element

iii. China put more emphasis on the trade element

iv. Needed to provide services that would nurture trade

1. The First Motel

b. Homes Faced a Southerly Direction

i. They did this to capitalize on solar energy

ii. Homes facing the South in the winter used less wood

1. Form of energy conservation

c. First to Develop Street Signs / Street Names

i. Easy for people to follow directions and not get lost

Medieval Cities

A. Medieval Period

a. Rome falls: 476 AD

b. Rome a population of 1 million now has 35,000

c. Outmigration to Northern Europe

B. Medieval Cities

a. Similar Features and Services as Rome

1. Walls

2. Public Space / Entertainment

3. Markets

4. Written Laws

C. Urban Advancements

Seven Important Attributes:

1. Architecture

a. Gothic Style

i. Roman Aspects: ex. The arch

ii. Small windows and stained glass

b. Belfry: Bell Tower

i. A source of communication

1. Ex; Invasion, crowning of a new king, etc.

c. Homes

i. For the first time, homes were constructed of wood

ii. Most homes had thatched roofs

iii. Each home had three stories:

1. Place of Work

a. 1st floor was designated to work

2. Place of Residence

a. 2nd floor was designated for living,

residency

3. Servant/Apprentice Residence

a. 3rd floor was for servants (wealthy)

b. For apprentices who were learning from the

tradesman(/craftsman)

d. The Theater

i. James Burbage

ii. The First Modern and English Theater: 1576

e. The Castle

i. A center for trade and military training

ii. A center for governance

f. Tower of London

i. 1080 AD

ii. Built by the Normans (also known as the Vikings)

iii. Tower of London had 3 major roles/purposes

1. Castle/Fortress

a. A place where the king could reside, soldiers

could train, arms could be stored securely

2. Prison

a. Known as one of the most ruthless prisons,

the worst dignitaries were brought there.

3. Mint: Edward I 1270 AD

a. A place of coinage

b. Why Here?

i. One of the most secure places in

England

c. Overseen by a Mint Master

i. Most famous was Isaac Newton (1699-

): “Master of Mint”

d. Coin Clipping

i. Breaking off pieces of silver and

selling for profit

ii. Jews expelled in 1290

1. Instead of only punishing those

working in the mint, Edward I

expelled all of the Jews from

England

4. Today

a. Museum

b. Home of the Crown Jewels

g. Palaces

i. Castles became palaces

ii. Palace of Versailles

1. 1624 King Louis XIII built this as a hunting cabin

2. 1682 King Louis XIV made this the center of

government

2. The Church

i. The Church: An influential Power

ii. Spread Christianity

iii. The Crusades

iv. Iberia

1. Modern day Spain

2. Movement to expel those practicing the Muslim, or any non-Christian faith

a. Cathedrals

i. The Cathedral: 1150 AD

ii. Tallest building in town…. Why?

iii. Some took more than 200 years to build.

3. Monarch System

a. The Monarch (King/Queen)

b. Challenged the church

c. King Henry VII: “The Reformation”

d. Edward I

i. Edward I 1274-1307

ii. William Wallace

1. Braveheart

iii. Reign

1. Wars with Scotland/Wales

2. United Walese under the English Crown

3. Expelled the Jews

4. Created a Uniform Legal System

iv. Redesigned Cities: Bastides

1. A grid system like Rome.

e. Bastides

i. Bastides: Fortified Towns

1. In Rome we called them Castras

ii. Features

1. A Central MArket

2. A Church

3. Walled Defenses

4. A Barracks

iii. Monpazier, France

4. New Professions

a. Tailors

b. Blacksmiths

c. Printers

d. Guilds: Skilled professions with certain rights

i. We call them Unions today

5. Agricultural Modifications

a. Advances in Agriculture

i. Result: More food with less work

b. Horseshoe

c. Steel Plow

i. Faster than plowing by hand

d. Leather Harness

i. Easier and more comfortable on the horses, longer life expectancy

e. Crop Rotation

i. Created more use for the agricultural land

6. Civil/Commerce Element

a. Like Rome, trade was important

b. Developed Trading Cities: “Bruges”

c. Example of a Bruges: Amsterdam, The Netherlands d. Amsterdam, Netherlands

i. Established 1275 on Amstel River

ii. Canals nurtured more trade

iii. More trade = Development

iv. Most traded Items

1. Textiles

2. Agricultural seeds

3. Fish

e. Self-Sustaining Cities

i. Most cities were self-sustaining

ii. Trade was aspired, but not required

f. Venice, Italy

i. Venice, Italy: Another Bruges

ii. No agricultural potential

1. Salt marshes

2. Bartered salt

7. Public Amenities

a. The Park or Mall: A public space given by the king i. A gift to the public

ii. Trying to keep the public happy

b. St. James Park

i. Original a hunting ground for Henry VIII

ii. Henry VIII: A hunting ground for deer

iii. Charles II created it as a public park

c. Parks

i. Park Features

1. Square or rectangular shaped

2. Symmetrical

3. Iconic Statue

ii. The Mall

1. Washington, D.C.

a. Open, symmetrical park

b. Washington Monument at center

iii. Still seen today…

1. Central Park

D. The Vikings

a. Left in search of timber, fish, fresh water, and land

i. Assessed areas with competing and declining institutions 1. All their invasions were during “feast season”

2. Waterways were a pathway to invasion

a. Raided coastal areas

b. Originally from Scandinavia

c. Where Did They Go?

i. Dublin was settled by the Vikings (806 AD)

1. Dubh Linn (Black Pool)

ii. 40 % of Liverpool citizens have Viking ancestry

iii. France

1. Charles the Bald made a deal with the Vikings, and gave

them a piece of France in exchange for not being invaded

2. 911 AD: A territory for the Normans

a. Normandy

E. Urban Advancements of the Vikings

1. Trade

a. The Middle East to North America

i. First true European settlers in this portion of the world

b. Developed sun-position navigation

2. A Tax Collector: “Tiun”

a. Hack silver

i. Literally hacked pieces off of silver coins and weighed it as a system of currency

3. D-Shaped Forts: “Fyrkat”

a. Fort Features:

i. Walls

ii. Four Gates

iii. Two Roads

iv. Barracks

1. Also included military training areas

b. Home Features:

i. Stone Lined with Wood

ii. Brush Roof

iii. Fire Pit

c. Not like a Castras, lacks trade element

F. The Dark Side of the Vikings

a. Human Trafficking

i. Believed to be the first human trafficking society

1. The sale of human beings into prostitution or sex slavery, and forced labor

b. Created a Male Dominated Society

i. The more males, the more of a military they could have

ii. Thousands of female children were killed as they were not seen as a necessity to the empire

G. Threats of Medieval Cities

1. Cities Were Growing Unsustainably

2. War: Draining Resources and Man-Power

a. Solution = More Taxes = Unrest (aka Crime)

b. Crime

i. Shire Reeve (Sheriff)

1. An appointed deputy

ii. King Louis XIV

1. Took measures to reduce crime

1. Mandates on More Lighting

2. Established the Framework of a Police-Force

2. Ever wonder why Paris is also known the City of Lights?

c. Why Crime?

1. Lack of Economic Opportunity

a. People may have jobs, but they are not well paying jobs.

b. With the addition of higher taxes, people needed to find

ways to offset expenses.

2. A Weak Judicial System

a. Relatively weak Judicial System

i. Romans and Greeks had well organized Judicial

System, run by elected officials

b. Headed by the King and/or Queen

c. Possibility of rewards was higher.

3. Opportunities for Crime

a. More opportunities made it more likely for people to

participate in criminal activity

b. Bounty hunter-like situations

4. Frustration with the King and Church

a. King/Queen were not showing support or care for the

people

b. Church was supposed to be institution for the people, yet they were not delivering to the people

H. The Black Death

a. Disease

i. Disease plagued much of the Medieval City

b. The “Black Death”

i. Many times, individuals fingers and toes would turn black c. 1331: Gobi Desert

i. Believed to have originated from China, specifically the Gobi desert

ii. Came from fleas, transferred to rats

iii. Carried by rats

d. Trade carried the plague (via rats) to Europe

e. 1347: It arrives in Istanbul, Turkey

i. First European city to be exposed to The Black Death

f. Carried by rats, but once humans were infected, it was transferred from human to human

g. Impact

1. Population Decline: 33% of Europe’s population died (25 million) a. Famine intensified mortality rates

b. Coincided with low agricultural production

i. Bad crop year

2. Economic Decline

a. Labor force is shrinking, the labor force was dying off

b. Experienced significant period of economic decline

3. Rejection of the Church

a. People were mad, would go to their Priests

i. “Why would God do this?”

Three Variations of the Black Death

1. Bubonic​ - Immune System (swollen lymph nodes -bubo)

a. Weakest strain, but most deadly

i. It was attacking immune system head on

2. Pneumonic​ - Respiratory System

a. At one point, it was believed to have spread through “bad air” 3. Septicemic​ - Blood Stream

a. Arguably to most deadly of the three strains

The Black Death: Long-Term Effects

1. Advances in Medicine/Public Health

a. In hopes to prevent it from happening again

2. Improvements in Diet

a. High famine

b. Policies were pushed forward for people to be able to eat healthier food, and to have enough food

The Renaissance & The Age of Enlightenment

A. The Renaissance

a. 15th Century

b. Renaissance = Rebirth

c. Rebirth of cities in southern Europe

B. Renaissance Urban Life

a. Shaped by the Arts

i. Ex; Statue of David, Mona Lisa

b. Shaped by Architecture

i. Shift from Gothic back to Roman style

ii. Symmetric

C. Renaissance Urban Advancements

1. Cartography: Mapmaking

a. Result: Better Urban-Planning

2. Advancements in Medicine and Surgery

a. Saw the first surgery

b. Influenced by The Black Death

3. The Modern Clock (circa 1500)

a. Belfry

b. Munich or Nuremberg

4. Star-Shaped Defenses

a. Why?

b. Invention of gunpowder made circular and rectangular forts obsolete

c. Star-shaped were more easily defensible, protected

Urban Challenges

a. 1755 Earthquake

i. Lisbon, Portugal

ii. Marquis Pombal rebuilt city

iii. Earthquake followed by Tsunami followed by fire

b. Fires

i. London 1666: 80% of city is destroyed

ii. Most homes were made of wood, leaving them very

vulnerable

5. Making Cities Healthier. How?

a. Building homes out of brick

i. Christopher Wren

1. Tasked with rebuilding London after the fire

2. St. Paul’s Cathedral

b. Improving the water

i. Helps minimize the disease

c. Making streets wider

i. Helps minimize spread of disease

ii. Helps minimize the spread of fires if things are more

spread out

6. Public Transportation

a. Blaise Pascal

i. Developed first public transportation system, for Paris, France

ii. First public bus 1662

iii. Paris, France

D. United States and Renaissance Ideas

a. Washington, D.C.

i. Columns

ii. First Urban Planner of DC was European (French)

b. Fort McHenry: Baltimore, MD

i. Star-shaped defense

ii. Attacked during War of 1812 by the British

1. Never surrendered, flag kept standing

2. Francis Scott Key wrote the National Anthem during the siege

c. Monticello: Charlottesville, VA

i. Columns

E. Spanish Cities

a. Clear city layout

b. City Center

i. The city center always had two things; a commerce element (marketplace), and a church or cathedral

ii. Church

iii. Market: “Plaza”

c. Homes:

i. Adobe tile roofs

ii. Painted in bright colors

F. Age of Enlightenment

a. Age of Enlightenment: circa 1700

i. Continuation of Renaissance: Renew

b. A value for the arts

c. Enlighten: “To provide greater understanding or knowledge” d. The Age of Reason

i. The use of science to explain and solve things

e. Rights of Man: Humans are rational actors

G. Key People: Age of Enlightenment

a. Ben Franklin

i. Did a lot of research with idea of conductors and insulators → Electricity

ii. Editor for a newspaper

iii. Developed bifocal glasses

b. Isaac Newton

i. Research focused on the Laws of Gravity

c. Galileo Galilei

i. Astronomer

ii. Noticed small objects revolving around Jupiter

1. Galileo Moons

iii. The Church believed that everything revolved around the Earth, he disagreed and was placed on house arrest and his research was torn up

d. Thomas Hobbes

i. “Humans are Rational Actors”

e. Thomas Jefferson

i. Co-Author of Declaration of Independence

ii. Founded The University of Virginia

f. Charles Darwin

i. In 1854, wrote ​The Origin of Species

ii. Survival of the fittest

g. Denis Diderot

i. 1751: the Encyclopedia

h. John Graunt

i. First experimental design

ii. Analysis of coal and mortality rates (1661)

iii. “Father of Statistics”

H. Urban Advancements: Age of Enlightenment

1. Used Science to Make Cities Healthier

a. How?

i. Widen streets

ii. Use bricks as a primary building material

iii. Improve the water

2. The Coffee Shop

a. A place where the common could exchange ideas

3. University System

a. A place to test ideas and expand knowledge

Cities of the New World: United States

a. Prospect of Riches

b. Earliest American cities were along the coast

c. 1604: James

B. New York, NY

a. 1524: Giovanni Da Verrazzano

b. 1624: New Amsterdam

i. Settled by the Dutch

ii. Manhattan: “Island of many hills”

iii. Brooklyn: (Breuckelen) “Wetland” or “Marsh”

iv. A trade post for slaves and fur

v. Alcohol consumption was very high, productivity was very low 1. New Amsterdam was falling apart

c. Peter Stuyvesant

i. Put people to work

1. 1. Organized City

2. 2. Built defensible walls

ii. First urban planner of New York (arguably)

iii. Built Broadway (and a number of other cities)

iv. Geography worked against the city, was surrounded by all British territory, the British took this opportunity and fought the Dutch

d. 1664: New York

e. 1811: Grid system was adopted

i. Streets and avenues

C. Detroit, MI

a. 1701: Antoine Cadillac

b. French: “Strait”

c. Trading post for fur

d. French and Indian War: 1754-1763

i. Fight between French and Great Britain, GB wins

e. British converted Detroit into a military post

f. Wooden Fort: 213 yards x 127 yards

g. Conflict with the Ottawa Indians: Chief Pontiac

i. French had a working relationship with the Indians, the British did not

h. 1805 Fire

i. Fire engulfs entire fort and burns it down

ii. Opportunity to rebuild the city better

i. Augustus Wood

i. First true urban planners of Detroit

ii. Wanted to use a rare, impractical design to rebuild the city; “Spoke and Wheel”

iii. They decided to use a grid system instead

D. Philadelphia, PA

a. Gift to William Penn from Charles II

i. Charles II owed a lot of money to William Penn, decided to give him a large piece of land in the new world

b. 1662: A grid system was adopted

i. Two wide main streets

1. Increase trade and the flow of goods coming out

ii. A town hall at intersection

c. Population Boom:

i. 1685 = 2,500

ii. 1776 = 40,000

E. Washington D.C.

a. Location

i. Between North and Southern states

ii. Close to ocean for trade

b. Revolutionary War

c. Potomac River

d. A territory not a state

i. In order to not show favoritism towards certain states

e. “Foggy Bottom”

i. Basically a swamp

f. 1791: Charles L’Enfant

i. French urban planner

ii. Hired to design national capitol

1. A hybrid grid and spoke and wheel layout

2. Streets: Letters, numbers, and states

a. No “J” Street

i. Charles L’Enfant did not get along with John

Jay, decided to not have a “J” street

g. Renaissance Style Design

i. Symmetrical buildings, ornate designs

h. The Mall

i. War of 1812

i. British came in, seized Washington D.C., burned it to the ground j. Post War: City reconfigured with the railroad

Cities of the New World: Latin America

a. Aztecs​ (modern-day Mexico)

b. Incans​ (modern-day Peru)

c. Mayans​ (modern-day Mexico and Guatemala

i. Only one that still exists

d. The settlers brought smallpox, which wiped out the populations (only the Mayans still exist)

B. European Influence in Latin America

a. Two countries with great maritime powers

i. Portuguese and Spanish

b. Went to Pope Alexander VI - 1494

i. Asked him to decide which country would get what

ii. Treaty of Tordesillas

1. The Pope drew an imaginary line on a map, not knowing

what was on the East side

2. Whatever was found on the East was the Spanish, on the

West Portuguese

3. South American countries speak Spanish as national

language, Brazil speaks portuguese

C. Tenochtitlan

a. Aztecs

b. Built the city on stilts

c. Made artificial islands

d. Navigable canals

e. Like Venice, Italy

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