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FIU / Chemistry / CHM 1033 / What do lysosomes contain?

What do lysosomes contain?

What do lysosomes contain?


School: Florida International University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Survey Of Chemistry
Professor: Erica nierth
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Biology, functional, FunctionalBiology, Chem, Chemistry, Science, and Molecules
Cost: 50
Name: Exam #2 Study Guide
Description: This is the review for Functional Biology exam #2.
Uploaded: 03/02/2018
9 Pages 145 Views 2 Unlocks

Review Questions Exam 2  

What do lysosomes contain?

1. What are the two main cell architectures? Which contains a “true” nucleus and many  membrane-bound organelles? Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic ; Eukaryotic

2. Where is DNA found in prokaryotes? Nucleoid  

3. List the functions of the following eukaryotic organelles:  

a. smooth endoplasmic reticulum: lipid synthesis detoxification of poisonous  molecules  

b. rough endoplasmic reticulum: Production of proteins that will be shipped to a  specific destination, helps protein bind to tertiary shape  

c. lysosomes:contains catalase  

d. golgi apparatus:processes protein produces from rough ER  

e. peroxisomes: site of REDOX reaction, the byproduct: hydrogen peroxide and  contains enzymes to break down  

f. mitochondria: manufactures ATP, contains DNA/ mitochondrial DNA  

What best describes enthalpy?

g. nucleus & nucleolus: DNA in chromosomes and DNA packaging ; sit of DNA  ribosomal synthesis and assembly  

4. What must proteins have in their primary structure to enter the nucleus? an NLS (Nuclear  Localization Signal)  

5. What is the overall purpose of the endomembrane system? sorting and movement of  proteins to correct organelles  

6. What must a newly made protein have in order to get into the inside (lumen) of the rough  endoplasmic reticulum? A special tag or a "signal sequence"

7. What is it called when a protein receives a sugar tag? Glycosylated  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the opponent colors according to ewald herring?
We also discuss several other topics like How would you compare cimabue to giotto?

8. How do proteins move between the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi  apparatus? by transport vehicles  Don't forget about the age old question of A share of stock is worth $100, and 5 years later its worth $175. what is the average rate of growth over those 5 years?

9. What do proteins receive when they move through the stacks (cisternae) of the golgi  apparatus that helps them get sorted into the correct transport vesicles? sugar tags  

What does entropy measure?

10. What is the definition of enthalpy? total energy in a molecule  

11. What is the definition of entropy? The amount of disorder (the more disorder the more  entropy)  We also discuss several other topics like What does black swan effect mean?

12. What is kinetic energy? Energy of movement/motion  

13. What is potential energy? stored energy due to position  

14. What does the 1st law of thermodynamics state? Energy cannot be created or destroyed  but only transferred and transformed  

15. What is the term for reactions that release heat? Absorb heat? exothermic released as heat  & endothermic absorb heat  

16. What is entropy a measure of? The amount of disorder

17. What does the 2nd law of thermodynamics state? in all spontaneous reactions, entropy  increases  

18. What is free energy? energy available to do free work

19. The change in free energy over the course of a reaction is a function of what three  properties? The change in ____ & ______ and also the _______. temperature, enthalpy,  entropy  

20. What is the formula for Gibb’s free energy? Define the variables. △G = △H - T△S  

21. Spontaneous reactions – do they require a constant input of energy? What is the change in  free energy (gain + or loss -) ΔG? What is the change in entropy ΔS? What is the likely  change in enthalpy ΔH? Is energy absorbed or released over the course of the reaction?  

Be able to identify a graph. No; released in reaction (exergonic) ; △G- loss of free energy  ;△S becomes higher, while △H becomes lower  If you want to learn more check out How does acid rain occur?

22. Non spontaneous reactions - do they require a constant input of energy? What is the  change in free energy (gain + or loss -) ΔG? What is the change in entropy ΔS? What is  the likely change in enthalpy ΔH? Is energy absorbed or released over the course of the  reaction? Be able to identify a graph. Yes, absorbed (endergonic) ; △G+ gain of free  energy ;

23. What is a reaction’s activation energy (Ea)? Do even spontaneous reactions have  activation energy?  

24. What is the transition state? High energy intermediate state of reactants that must be  achieved for a reaction to proceed  Don't forget about the age old question of What is fauvism?

25. What is a catalyst? How do enzymes act as catalysts? Include Ea in your answer. a  catalyst is an enzyme that speeds up a reaction ; binds substrates  

26. Where does a substrate bind to an enzyme? What occurs to enzyme shape with this  binding? binds at active site and undergoes induced fit; straining bonds of reactants  

27. What are cofactors? inorganic ions (not carbon based)  

28. What are coenzymes? small organic molecules (carbon based)  

29. How do competitive inhibitors regulate enzyme reactions? Where do they bind to an  enzyme? It will decrease reaction rate, binds at substrate.  

30. What are allosteric regulators? What are the two types? Where do they bind to an  enzyme? molecule binds to a different site on the enzyme ; regulation and inhibition ;  bind to a different place on molecule thats not active site  

31. Describe negative feedback inhibition. When a final product of a multistep enzyme  pathway inhibits an earlier enzyme in the pathway to regulate the pathway.  

32. Do all enzymes work under the same optimal environmental conditions? No.

33. What is meant by “energetic coupling”? Between two different types of reaction  ( exergonic and endergonic reaction)  

34. Why does ATP have high potential energy? What does the cell break off during  hydrolysis of ATP? What is released in this reaction? - ATPs clustered negative charges  give it High P.E. ; Phosphates ; Energy is released  

35. What happens to the energy level of the a reactant that receives a phosphate group from  ATP and becomes an “activated substrate”? How is this important to the reaction?  Clustered negative chargers raise the potential energy of linked phosphate group  

36. What is the process by which the energy stored in sugars (and other molecules such as  fats) is converted to ATP? glycolysis  

37. In a reduction-oxidation (REDOX), what is being transferred between the reactants?  Electrons

38. What is meant when a molecule is oxidized? Reduced? losing electrons ; gaining  electrons

39. Does an oxidized or reduced molecule gain potential energy? reduced 40. When a molecule is reduced, what kind of bond does it often gain?H bond 41. Cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen is called? Aerobic respiration

42. Contrast catabolic versus anabolic reactions. Which type of reaction is hydrolysis?  Dehydration/condensation? Catabolic: break down molecules - Anabolic: synthesize or  combine molecules ; Hydrolysis: dehydration  

43. What are the four main “steps/groups of reactions” in aerobic cellular respiration?  Glycolysis,Pyruvate processing ,Citric acid cycle, Electron transport and oxidative  phosphorylation.

44. What is the overall equation of aerobic cellular respiration? What is being reduced?  Oxidized? Glucose (C6H12O6) + 6 Oxygen (O2) ---> 6 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + 6 water  (H2O)  

45. What is the purpose of NAD+ and FAD+? electron carriers

46. In the first steps of glycolysis, what is invested to make glucose a very high energy  molecule? 2 ATP

47. In the payoff phase of glycolysis, how many ATP are produced? What is the net gain of  ATP? 4 produced so net gain of 2

48. What is the mechanism of ATP production in the steps of glycolysis? Phosphate comes  out of ATP and gets used for energy so glucose can become unstable and break  

49. How many NAD+ are reduced in glycolysis? 2

50. In addition to ATP & reduced electron carriers (NADH), what are the other products of  glycolysis? 2 pyruvate

51. Where in the cell do the steps of glycolysis occur? After these reactions are complete,  where is most of the energy that was in glucose? Cytoplasm, most energy in pyruvate

52. How are the steps of glycolysis regulated via negative feedback inhibition? High levels of  ATP inhibit enzyme  

53. Pyruvate Processing: Where does it occur? What waste product is produced? How many  electron carriers are reduced? Is ATP produced? What are the products of this reaction?  Mitochondria matrix ; CO2 and NADH ; 2NADH are reduced ; 2 ATP produced per  glucose (substrate-level phosphorylation) ; 2 Acetyl CoA  

54. Where does the citric acid cycle occur in the cell? Mitochondrial matrix

55. What enters into the cycle? How many cycles per glucose? What are the products of the  citric acid cycle per glucose? Acetyl CoA enters ; 8 cycles per glucose ; 6NADH and 2  FADH2  

56. Study the products of the citric acid cycle, what is the main “goal” of this series of  reactions? How is this series of reactions regulated? Main goal is to oxidize glucose  completely ; regulated by ATP and NADH with neg feedback inhibition  

57. The energy that was once in glucose is now being carried by what molecules? NADH and  FADH2

58. The electron carriers from glycolysis, pyruvate processing and the citric acid cycle bring  their electron carries to the _____________ located in the ______________. electron  transport chain ; inner mitochondrial membrane

59. What is released as electrons move down the electron transport chain toward the final  protein complex that holds oxygen? Energy

60. How are electrons shuttled between protein complexes in the lipid bilayer? By coenzyme  Q and Cytochrome C

61. What forms as electrons are given to oxygen? H+

62. What is activated as electrons move down the electron transport chain toward oxygen to  create a proton gradient? What kind of transport is this? Protein pumps , active transport

63. The build-up of protons in the intermembrane space (a high energy situation) is called  the…. proton motive force

64. How can protons (H+) diffuse back across the inner mitochondrial membrane. What is  this diffusion called? ATP synthase, by chemiosmosis  

65. What is oxidative phosphorylation? when proteins cause the rotor and shaft to spin,  catalyzing the phosphorylation of ADP and ATP  

66. Cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen is called….. fermentation 67. In lactic acid fermentation, what is the final electron carrier? pyruvate  68. What is produced when yeast undergo fermentation? 2 ethanol

69. Compare the total yields of ATP between aerobic cellular respiration and fermentation.  Aerobic Respiration is 29 and fermentation is 2

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