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UT / Chemistry / CHEM 110 / What is benzene?

What is benzene?

What is benzene?


School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Chemistry
Course: Intro to Organic and Biochemistry
Professor: Heather bass
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Organic Chemistry, Chemistry, Chem110, professorboyd, professorbass, and theuniversityoftennessee
Cost: 50
Name: Chemistry 110, Test 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover all of the material that will be on Test 2 for Chemistry 110.
Uploaded: 03/03/2018
43 Pages 39 Views 3 Unlocks

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Chemistry Test 2 ReviewWe also discuss several other topics like How do you identify partially negative atom?

Chapter 13

  1. Benzene - a planar molecule with 120bond angles and 3 sets of double bonds

  • Because these 3 double bonds can be placed in 2 different locations, benzene has resonance structures. For this reason, benzene is said to have a delocalized bond because its bonds are neither single or double, but somewhere in the middle (1 ½ ), which makes it extremely stable

  1. Automatic Compound - a hydrocarbon that contains 1 or more benzene like rings

  1. Hydrocarbons to know...

Don't forget about the age old question of What is apical complex?

Don't forget about the age old question of Define territory.

  1. Special Common Names

Don't forget about the age old question of Who developed grand cuisine?

  1. Substituent Location Names

  1. Naming with 2 substituents (IUPAC)

Step 1 locate any special common names and list that as your 1We also discuss several other topics like What does davis-moore thesis on structural functional theory?

Step 2 locate any other substituents and use or tho, meta, or para to tell their location

Step 3 add the 1rst part of the name of whatever substituent you have before the common name(CI = chloro, Br = bromo, etc.)

  1. Naming with more than 1 special common name

OH = hydroxyl group        NH2 = amino groupIf you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of rocks?

Step 1 choose 1 of them and place it in front of the special common name along with the location (o, m, p)

Ortho - hydroxy aniline or ortho - amino phenol

  1. Naming with benzene as the base

Step1 when there is no special common name present but it is still benzene with substituents have the lowest possible numbering and use “benzene” as the base name

  1. Xylene - benzene with 2 CH3 methyl substituents

  1. Naming with benzene as a substituent

Benzene as a substituent is called a phenyl group

A double bond on a non - benzene ring takes priority over substituents

  1. Naming benzene with 3 or more substituents

Step 1 the special common name is still 1

Step 2 number for lowest # combination for substituents

Step 3 number substituents in alphabetical order. Include chloro or bromo as needed

If there is no special common name present. # for the lowest combo for substituents and use benzene as your base

  1. More than 3 substituents

You cannot use ortho, meta, or para

  1. The butyl names

  1. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

The connecting bond is numbered last as 9 and 10

There are only 2 possible substituent placement for naphthalene. Anywhere else would be the same molecule, just flipped

  1. Halogenation of Benzene

When CI2 (or Br2) is added to benzene along with the catalyst FeCL3, the H trades places with CL(or Br) the H the then combines with the remaining CI(or Br) to form HCI (or HBr)

Monosubstitution - (1X is added) is used for alkanes and aromatics

Disubstitution - (2Xs are added) is used for alkenes

  1. Nitration (Reduction Reaction)

Benzene reacts with HNO3 and the catalyst H2SO4. NO2 bonds to benzene and the remaining H from benzene combines with the remaining OH from HNO3 to form H2o

NO2 = nitro

  1. Hydrogenation of Benzene

Nitrobenzene reacts with 3H2 and a transition metal catalyst. 1 H2 pair combines with N to form NH2(aniline) and 2 H2 pairs combine with the remaining O2 from NO2 to form 2 H2O

  1. Naming examples

  1. Sulfonation of benzene

Benzene and H2SO4 react, SO3H trades places with H, and the remaining OH from H2SO4 combines with the H to form H2O

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