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UVU - Phil 205 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UVU - Phil 205 - Class Notes - Week 3

School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Ethics and Values
Professor: Jeffery Neilson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: philosophy and Lecture Notes
Name: PHIL 205G - Week 3 (January 22-26)
Description: These notes cover the last part of Utilitarianism and goes over the start of our discussion on Deontology.
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
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background image   Katelyn Orcutt  January 22-26  Week 3  January 22nd 
MAIN POINTS: 
● Reading:  ○ Mill and Utilitarianism (start page 46)  ● Utilitarianism  UTILITARIANISM DISCUSSION:  John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): Utilitarianism  ● Utilitarianism is the most influential type of  consequentialist  Moral Theory  ● “Utility” is normally described as usefulness as opposed to beauty, not as Mill says “it  means pleasure”.  ● Epicurus : Greek Philosophy, life is pleasure.  ● Bentham : Mill’s teacher that coined the term “utilitarianism”  ○ “Pleasure is something that we need”  The basis of utilitarianism is to find the choice that  maximizes pleasure and minimizes pain​,  and to think of the choice as if you were a 3rd party observer. 
[Page 47]
​ Definition of Utilitarianism  ● Balance: The greater good for most vs. Expense of the lesser  ○ An issue with Utilitarianism is that it tends to bend towards a majority ruling, resulting in  the minorities being left out of the decision.  [Page 48] ​: Pleasure ​is​ in human nature because we would be no more than beasts  ● Common critique is to say that pleasure is a low level feeling  Mill’s argument is that as humans we are able to experience more and differently from animals.  The Highest Pleasures ​: Intellect, Moral Sentiments, Imagination, Feelings  ● With these, you cannot live a pleasurable life as a human with only the pleasure of physical  sensation (we will feel unfulfilled without the mental pleasures)  ○ “Better being a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied”  The Lower Pleasures ​: Animal Appetites, Mere Sensation  Quantity vs. Quality: ​ Neither is better than the other, express them both (knowing both sides).  ● If you are questioning which option is more pleasurable or desirable, you must ask those who  have experienced  both sides​ and using their experience you can find which option would be  better for you.  ● Working hard to a goal and not allowing yourself immediate pleasure in favor of something more  pleasurable later (Quality)  The ability to think in terms of long term gains: 
The Marshmallow Experiment 
“In the Long Run” 
- If you know the higher pleasures, you will take of the lesser pleasures in favor of those (the 
higher pleasures) - because it is rational. 
*Reason:  ​Another expression of humans and not animals (collecting as much information as you can to  make a decision). 
 
 
January 24th 
background image   Katelyn Orcutt  January 22-26  Week 3  MAIN POINTS:  ● Reading:   ○ (Continuation) Kant - pages 40-43  ● Utilitarian Discussion (Continued) 
● Deontology (The Good Will) Discussion 
UTILITARIAN DISCUSSION (CONTINUED): 
Why be ethical?
: To maximize happiness (max. Pleasure, min. Pain)  How to be ethical? : Make choices in favor of outcomes that maximize utility for the greatest amount of  people.  ● Focuses exclusively on the outcomes/consequences (therefore, utilitarianism is a type of  consequentialism)  ● Values reason and empirical judgements based on measurable data not arbitrary claims.    * ACT UTILITARIAN:  * RULE UTILITARIAN:  ● Maximize utility in the moment 
● Each act you judge independently 
● Maximize utility in the long run.   
How would utilitarians settle a dispute on the right now or long-term? 
It would be difficult, since they see those as two different problems.  Does utilitarianism promote inequality?  Inequality → The happy get happier, the sufferers suffer more 
 
DEONTOLOGY DISCUSSION:  Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): Deontology (Story of Duty and Intent)  ● Reaction/Rejection of Utilitarianism 
● Focused on Duty/Intent instead of an outcome or consequence 
○ Kant says the outcome or the consequences are irrelevant  [ ​Page 40​]: ​“The Good Will”​ -   ● Will  - Self-conscious/aware mechanism of choice  ● Being good for good’s sake (and not for some other reason)  How do you determine what is “good in of itself”?  The Categorical Imperative  January 26th 
MAIN POINTS: 
● Reading:  ​Kant and Deontology (pages 43-45)  ● Deontology Discussion Continued 
● The Good Will 
● Introduction to Kant’s Ethical Dilemmas 
DEONTOLOGY DISCUSSION (CONTINUED): 
Why be ethical?: 
To have freedom and dignity of autonomy (self-rule)  Utilitarianism Ethics : Being ruled by eternal things/desires/inclinations (heteronomy). 

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School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Ethics and Values
Professor: Jeffery Neilson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: philosophy and Lecture Notes
Name: PHIL 205G - Week 3 (January 22-26)
Description: These notes cover the last part of Utilitarianism and goes over the start of our discussion on Deontology.
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
4 Pages 36 Views 28 Unlocks
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