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UOP - CHEM 027 - Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UOP - CHEM 027 - Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide Ch 14-16  Chapter 14  Describe the fundamental basis of the localized electron model and explain why hybrid orbitals, 
rather than pure atomic orbitals, are often used to describe bonding in molecules.  
The LE model talks about valence electrons being localized between atoms. Half filled orbitals will 
overlap to form bonds but hybrid orbitals will have a mix of the regular orbitals. This is because regular 
atomic orbitals cannot explain some of the bond angles (such as why it’s 109.5° for tetrahedral instead 
of 90°). Hybrid orbitals also show that atom don’t all come exclusively from certain orbitals but 
from a mix of orbitals.  
Write hybridization schemes for the formation of sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, and sp3d2 hybrid orbitals; predict 
the geometric shapes of molecule in terms of the pure and hybrid orbitals.  
sp    -       linear (2 e -  pairs surrounding the central atom)  sp 2    -       trigonal planar (3 e -  pairs surrounding the central atom)  sp 3    -       tetrahedral (4 e -  pairs surrounding the central atom)  dsp 3  -       bipyramidal (5 e -  pairs surrounding the central atom)  d 2 sp 3  -     octahedral (6 e -  pairs surrounding the central atom)  Explain the fundamental basis of molecular orbital theory.   Molecular Orbitals have valence electrons are delocalized. The electrons are specifically assigned to 
individual bonds between atoms rather they are floating around the nuclei in the whole molecule.   
Sketch molecular orbitals for simple homonuclear diatomic molecules.  Know the diagrams for B 2 , C 2 , N 2 , O 2 , and F 2 . You first fill the bottom orbitals as you go up.    The order is  σ 2p *     _____________    π 2p *     ______    _____  σ 2p           __________  π 2p        ____     _____   σ 2s *     ____________  σ 2s        ____________   Assign probable electron configurations, determine bond order, and predict magnetic properties of 
simple homonuclear diatomic molecules and ions.  
  Electron configuration is simply using the form 
background image 2s ) __  (σ 2s *) __ ( σ 2p ) ___ ( π 2p ) ___ ( π 2p *) ___ ( σ 2p *) ___     Fill in the blanks with exponents based on how many electrons are in those orbitals.   For example: O 2   is   (σ 2s ) 2 2s *) 2 ( σ 2p ) 2 ( π 2p ) 4 ( π 2p *) 2     Bond Order =  # 𝑜𝑓 𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑀𝑂𝑠−# 𝑜𝑓 𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑟𝑏𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑙𝑠 2     Note: antibonding orbitals are denoted by *  Magnetic Properties are basically determining whether the molecule is diamagnetic or paramagnetic. 
You can figure this out by seeing if there are unpaired electrons in any of the orbitals. If there are 
unpaired electrons, it is paramagnetic meaning that there is some magnetism in the molecule. If all the 
electrons are paired then the molecule is diamagnetic.  
Describe multiple bonds between second period elements in terms of the overlap of sp, sp2, sp3 and 
pure 2p orbitals to form σ bonds and the sidewise overlap of p orbitals for form π bonds.  
P orbitals can meet horizontally to create sigma bonds and vertically to create pi bonds.                                        Sigma Bonds                                             Pi Bonds  (Also remember that the signs must match for them to bond or else they won’t)  A single bond is a sigma bond. A double bond is a sigma and a pi bond. A triple bond is a sigma bond and 
two pi bonds.  
  Explain the bonding in the benzene molecule (C6H6) through Lewis structures and by combining the 
localized electron and molecular orbital models. 
Benzene shows delocalized pi electrons. Each of the carbons is sp 2  hybridized, meaning that there is one  unhybridized p orbital. All these unhybridized orbitals overlap. This leads to delocalized pi electrons 
roaming all about the molecule.     
Lewis Structures 

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School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: CHEM027
Professor: Dimitry Izotov
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: hybridization, kinetics, and Phase changes intermolecularforces
Name: Chemistry Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This guide has filled out objectives and some other things you need to know how to do for the exam
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
6 Pages 28 Views 22 Unlocks
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