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PSYC 22491 - Study Guide - Midterm

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PSYC 22491 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Midterm Study Guide  Chapters 1-7  Friday March 9th at 10:00AM  WAYS TO STUDY FOR SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS:  ● Name it 
● Describe it 
● Apply it 
● Design experiment 
Chapter 1 (p 1-18)  S TUDY  Q UESTIONS   1. What do the terms  learning  and memory mean in the context of this chapter? How  are they referring to similar things? How do they diverge?  2. Why do we need metaphors for memory? What are some metaphors? What do they  tell us about the nature of memory?  3. What were some of the major figures and some of the major schools of thought that  dominated thinking about human memory? What are the contributions of each?  4. What are some of the major divisions of human memory? What sort of processing is  done by each of those divisions?  5. What are some of the emerging themes that will be recurring at various points in  our discussion of memory?  Links to Use:  ● Metaphors of Memory:  ● Ebbinghaus’s classic text: ​ ​  ● Frederic Bartlett: ​ ​  ● William James: ​ ​   A S MATTERING   OF  D EFINITIONS   ● The terms  memory ​ and ​learning​ are used in specific ways in experimental psychology.  ● Memory refers to the storage of information and the processes used to retrieve it. When  referring to research, there is a greater likelihood that this will be work with humans.  
background image ● Learning is a term that has a greater association with studies of conditioning that are  more likely to involve animals.  M EMORY   1. location where information is kept (i.e. warehouse) 
2. the things that holds the contents of experience 
a. also called  ENGRAM  b. each memory has different representation  3. mental process used to learn, store, and remember information of all sorts  * ​ 1 and 3 used in experimental psychology  L EARNING   ● learning ​ – any change in the potential of people after to alter their behavior as a  consequence of experience  M ETAPHORS   FOR  M EMORY   ● We use metaphors to explain memory because you cannot observe it. 
● Recorder of Experience 
○ Wax Tablet 
○ Record player 
○ Writing pad 
○ Tape recorder 
○ Video camera 
● Organized Storage  ○ House 
○ Library 
○ Dictionary 
● Interconnections  ○ Networks 
○ Switchboards 
● Jumbles Storage  ○ Birds in Aviary 
○ Purse 
○ Junk Drawer 
○ Garbage Can 
● Focus on Certain Abilities  ○ Temporal Availability  ● Conveyor belt  ○ Content Addressability  ● Lock and key 
background image ● Tuning fork  ○ Forgetting of Details  ● Leaky bucket 
● Cow’s stomach 
● Acid bath 
● Acknowledge the Process 
○ Reconstruction  ● Rebuilding a dinosaur from fossils  ○ Active Processing  ● Computer program 
● Work bench 
History of Memory Research  ● The Ancients  ○ Ebbinghaus (1850-1909): Time-Course of Forgetting 
○ Memorized 3 letter nonsense syllables, and then varied the delay, and tested how 
long it took to relearn the information  ○ Savings/Retention curve  ● Important Modern Precursors 
● Early Memory Researchers in Psychology 
○ Gestalt Movement 
○ The whole is different than the sum of its parts 
○ Anti-reductionist 
○ Did acknowledge the importance of understanding the components of thought 
○ Memory influenced by the configuration of elements and context 
○ Isomorphism of mental representation 
Behaviorism  ○ John Watson (1913): “what we need to do is start work upon psychology making  behaviorism, not consciousness, the objective point of our attack”  ● Pavlov’s Dogs (Classical) 
● Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 
● Tolman’s Cognitive Map (~1918-1954) 
○ Identified himself as a behaviorist 
○ Verbal Learning 
○ Behaviorist approach to learning verbal materials 
○ Developed from Ebbinghaus’s work. 
■ Memorization  ○ “attachment of responses to stimuli”  ■ Forgetting  ○ “loss of response availability” 
background image ■ Paired Associate Learning  ○ A-B C-D paradigm    ■ L1: bird fancy L2: happy dog  ○ A-B A-D paradigm    ■ L1: Bird fancy l2: bird dog  ○ A-B A-B’ paradigm (synonyms)  ■ L1: bird fancy L2: bird Dressy  ○ A-B A-Br paradigm (recombination)  ■ L1: bird fancy /table arrow L2: bird arrow /table fancy 
■ Early Efforts in Neuroscience 
■ Early Efforts in Neuroscience 
● Lashley (1890-1958)  ○ Search for the  engram  ○ Rats learned a maze 
○ Lashley progressively removed larger and larger portions of rats’ brains, from 
different locations  ○ Memory affected more by the amount of brain tissue removed, not the location 
○ The Cognitive Revolution 
○ 1950s’ 
○ Brain as a computer? 
○ Information Processing Model 
● The Modal Model of Memory  ○  The standard heuristic that continues to be used as a guide for discussions of  memory.   ○ One component of this model is the sensory registers, which are brief memory  systems that hold sensory information.   ○ Short-term memory holds small amounts of information for short periods of time,  usually under a minute. The control processes are used to actively manipulate 
○ Long-term memory is responsible for storing information for very long periods of  time.  ● Multiple Memory Systems  ○  Theory of memory in which memories can be described as anoetic (procedural),  noetic (semantic), or autonoetic (episodic).   ○ Another distinction is between declarative (episodic and semantic) and  nondeclarative.  
background image ○ A third distinction is between implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious)  memory processes.  ● Recurring Issues  ○ Neurological Bases 
○ Emotion 
○ Multiple Memory Sources 
○ Embodied Cognition 
○ Scientific Rigor and Converging Evidence 
Putting It All Together  ●   Chapter 2  Links to use:  Neurotransmitters:   Song:   How to Remember Neurotransmitter Functions:     The Brain  Cortical Lobes  ● Frontal - the frontal lobe is where complex thinking occurs. Use “front door” as your  mnemonic. Put the front door on your forehead and put Einstein (complex thinker) 
behind the door. 
● Occipital -  Use the “Occ” part of the word Occipital and imagine an octopus. Since the  occipital lobe processes visual information, picture eyeballs instead of suckers on the 
tentacles. Always good to make your image scary if you can.  
● Parietal - processes sensory information. Use a “ ​piranha​” fish as your mnemonic. The  piranha bites you on the top of the head (where the parietal lobe is located). That’s a 
sensation the parietal lobe would process. 
● Temporal -  where auditory processing occurs. Use “ ​tempo​” as your mnemonic and  picture a metronome above your ear (where the temporal lobe is located)  Acronym ​: ​F​reud ​T​ore [his] ​P​ants ​O​ff → Frontal Temporal Parietal Occipital   Subcortical 
background image ● hippocampus – memory, storing conscious memories; involved in memory. Use  “compass”: picture someone (perhaps yourself) who is lost and can’t remember how to 
get home, so you need a 
​compass​.  ● amygdala – involved in processing emotional aspects of memories; involved in your fear  responses. Picture a scary wig (rhymes with “myg”) with dollars in the hair (similar to 
● basal ganglia – set of subcortical structures located above or around the thalamus 
● includes amygdala, tail of caudate, thalamus, putamen, head of caudate, Globus pallidus, 
nucleus circumbus  ● cerebellum - complex motor control and coordination and is used for procedural skills;  Picture a tight walker using bells for balance  ● hypothalamus - routing station for signals from different parts of the brain; Use “hypo -  the -llamas" as your mnemonic. Picture a hypo spraying two thirsty llamas with water to 
quench their thirst and cool them down. 
Acronym ​: ​H A B C H  Central Nervous System ​ - brain and spinal cord  Systems ​ - visual system, limbic system, autonomic nervous system, etc.  Maps ​ - many systems are organized into topographical maps.  Places on hands adjacent in  cortex, same with vision and frequency in auditory cortex  Networks ​ - small local collection of numerous neurons (10^5)  Neurons ​ -  elementary processing unit of nervous system  Acronym ​: ​C​an’t ​S​leep ​M​ight ​N​eed ​N​aps → CNS, Systems, Maps, Networks, Neurons  Cells specialized in receiving, integrating, and transferring information within the nervous 
● Three classes of neurons:  ○ Sensory ​: Transmit information from sensory receptors to the brain (​afferent​)  ○ Motor ​: Transmit commands from the brain to the muscles and glands of the body  ( ​efferent​)  ○ Interneurons ​: Interconnect neurons  Example: ​  touch your hand to a hot surface sensory neurons ‘sense’ pain in the hands and  transmit info to the 
Brain via interneurons.   Brain interprets pain and sends message to hand to move via motor 
​: ​D​ang! ​S​kinner ​A​te ​M​ice?? ​N​ot ​V​ery ​S​mart → Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Myelin  sheath, Nodes of Ranvier, synaptic Vessels, Synapse 

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School: Columbus State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Human Memory
Professor: Aisha Adams
Term: Spring 2018
Name: Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers Chapters 1 to 7,
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
33 Pages 71 Views 56 Unlocks
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