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UVU - Phil 205 - Class Notes - Week 8

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UVU - Phil 205 - Class Notes - Week 8

School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Ethics and Values
Professor: Jeffery Neilson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: philosophy and Lecture Notes
Name: PHIL 205G - Week 8 (February 26 - March 2)
Description: These notes include a conclusion to our discussion of Augustine and Divine Command Theory and we also discuss Kai Nielsen's "Ethics without Religion".
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
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background image   Katelyn Orcutt  February 26 - March 2   Week 8  February 26th - March 2nd 
MAIN POINTS: 
● Reading:  ○ Augustine “Morality and the Love of God” - Page 165  ● Discussion on Divine Command Theory 
● Discussion on Augustine and his Influence on Divine Command Theory 
DIVINE COMMAND THEORY DISCUSSION:  ● Divine Command Theory: ​ Morality is what the Divine (gods/God) commands, therefore  morality/ethics is dependent on the Divine.  ○ *Qualities of the Divine:  ■ Omniscient = All Knowing 
■ Omnipotent = All Powerful 
■ Omnibenevolent = All Good 
● Plato’s Issue with Divine Command Theory:  ○ 2 “Horns” of the Euthyphro Dilemma:  ■ 1. Is it morally good,  therefore​ the Divine commands it?  ● Questions Omnipotence (this horn says that the divine must have  conformed to a list of rules)   ○ “The Divine just happens to know”  ● Saying that morality is  independent​ of the Divine  ● And that the divine is  not necessary​ for morality to exists  ■ 2. Is it morally good,  because​ the Divine commands it?  ● Questions the Omnibenevolence of the divine “the divine does what they  want/what they do” because they want it.   ● This also suggests that morality is changeable/arbitrary/without reason 
● That there is no morality without the Divine (The Divine is absolutely 
necessary)  ○ This suggests: “Bite the bullet”  ■ I just agree  ○ “The divine isn’t necessary”  ■ But I’m okay with that  ○ “There is no dilemma at all”  ■ St. Augustine’s point (later discussed)  DISCUSSION ON AUGUSTINE:  ● Augustine (353-430 CE):  ○ Free Will vs. Fate  ■ Free Will questions omniscience 
■ Fate is to say that we have no meaningful control, and so why should we question 
morality in the first place?  ○ Augustine says that God is outside of our knowledge of cause and effect. That our free  will is inside of our fate, so we may still decide but God absolutely knows which you will 
choose. 
background image   Katelyn Orcutt  February 26 - March 2   Week 8  ○ God cannot be compared to us (as to say us only if we have the ability to know  everything). He says that God is even more than that comparison. That God is beyond 
just knowing everything. 
○ “Two Cities” Parable:  ■ City of the Flesh:  ● Embodied Existence  ■ City of the Spirit:   ● Transcendence  February 28th 
MAIN POINTS: 
● Reading:  ○ Kai Nielsen “Ethics without Religion” - Page 169  ● Continue Discussion on Augustine and Divine Command Theory 
● Begin Discussion on Kai Nielsen and Ethics without Religion 
AUGUSTINE DISCUSSION (CONTINUED):  ● Augustine:   ○ God is  necessary​ for Morality. Reason is insufficient  ○ “Two Cities” Parable:  ■ City of Flesh: ​ Immoral based on physical experience and reason alone.   ● Immoral/Sinful. You cannot have peace within your soul.  ■ City of Spirit: ​ Moral based on Transcendence of physical experience and God.  ● Peace of the rational soul.  
● Augustine believes there is a longing in our soul that 
​cannot​ be satisfied  without ​ God.  ○ It is natural to be immoral, but our strive to be moral/good is to bring about that peace of  our soul.  ■ Naturally we dwell in the city of the flesh, but it lacks the peace we need so we  should strive to dwell into the city of the spirit to gain that peace.  ● [ ​Page 167​]: Beasts can strive for only their bodies, because that is all they have. But since we are  rational beings, Augustine is saying we need something additional, which can be found in the city 
of spirit.  
○ God does  ​not follow​ the moral order, ​nor did he create​ the moral order, ​God is the moral  order.  ○ [ ​Page 168​]: *God and morality are love  ■ To live in the city of the spirit you must love accordingly  KAI NIELSEN “ETHICS WITHOUT RELIGION” DISCUSSION:  ● Kai Nielsen (b. 1926-): “Ethics without Religion” ( ​Page 169​)  ○ Religion is not necessary for Ethics. Reason and Common Humanity are  ​sufficient  grounds for Ethics.  ○ Religious Apologists:  ■ Those who defend religion.  ○ Secularists:  ■ Something without religious basis 

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School: Utah Valley University
Department: OTHER
Course: Ethics and Values
Professor: Jeffery Neilson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: philosophy and Lecture Notes
Name: PHIL 205G - Week 8 (February 26 - March 2)
Description: These notes include a conclusion to our discussion of Augustine and Divine Command Theory and we also discuss Kai Nielsen's "Ethics without Religion".
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
4 Pages 21 Views 16 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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