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UGA / OTHER / AESC 2050 / When was georgia farm bureau established?

When was georgia farm bureau established?

When was georgia farm bureau established?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: OTHER
Course: Effects of Global Agriculture on World Culture
Professor: Brian kiepper
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: food, fads, foodfads, documentaries, critical, adverstisement, persuasion, persuasiontechniques, urbanfarming, guestspeakers, cause and effect, peaches, pecans, pearsonfarms, agriculture, globalagriculture, and global
Cost: 50
Name: AESC Study Guide for Test 2
Description: Notes and study tips for material discussed in class including food fads, documentaries, advertisement, guest speakers and urban farming.
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
30 Pages 125 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews


AESC Study Guide Test 2


When was georgia farm bureau was established?



★ Guest speaker 1: Director of Georgia Farm Bureau 

● Georgia Farm Bureau was established in 1937 as an organization to allow farmers to have a unified voice in the farming arena - Consolidated farmers to strengthen voice

- Guest speaker’s focus = state-level lobbying, including things like taxes / environment / farms

- He works with 20 commodity advisory committees (which are grassroots organizations, meaning that the problems to be considered come straight from the producers /

farmers)

● Some dynamics

- There are 56 senators and 180 house members in

Congress

- There are about 937 lobbyists → so 3.9 lobbyist for every elected official


5th generation peach and pecan grower are from where?



- There’s the American Farm Bureau (national level) → currently working on immigration, labor, and disaster

assistance issues

- AFB has 40 days to pass or not pass anything

★ Guest speaker 2: Lawton Pearson 

● 5th generation peach and pecan grower for Fort Valley, GA ○ Farms 1500 acres of peaches and 3000 acres pecans ○ Uses www.pearsonfarms.com as a way to reach more people (because his farm is kind of in the middle of If you want to learn more check out Anthropology is the study of what?
If you want to learn more check out How is dna replicated?

nowhere)

➔ PEACHES

◆ A fruit that grows on a tree (takes about 10-12 years to fully grow)

◆ Adds phosphate to soil, gets PH just right, then plants tiny tree → the first 1-3 years = a few peaches but around 5-10 years = major profit and then at about 13 years = get rid of tree


What is peaches?



◆ There are MANY varieties of peaches but they only last about 2 weeks so it’s hard to market a particular variety (in other words, it’s hard to pick only one type of variety at a time)

◆ California makes fully red peaches to hide bruises (and they’re huge) but it’s hard to grow those type of peaches in GA ◆ GA’s signature peach is yellow and orange (Pearson is intent on keeping color of peach in order to keep flavor the same) ◆ When there’s a chill in the weather it “triggers” the peaches and then they bloom → if there’s a frost in the middle of the bloom, the peaches freeze and many get ruined

◆ Peaches need about 900 hours of chill

◆ Peaches aren’t just shaken out of trees because some are ripe while others aren’t… thus varieties are picked based on zone ◆ Sometimes the trees are thinned so more nutrients can get to fewer peaches, making the peaches bigger

◆ ONLY peaches that are RIPE are picked

➔ PECANS

◆ Plants pecans in peach orchards to constantly and consistently make money We also discuss several other topics like What are the things that may affect the ecology?

◆ Pecans = antioxidant rich, and recently there’s been a global trend towards nut consumption

◆ Pecans are less risky than peaches to grow because:

● For twice the acreage, only ¼ of the labor needed for peaches is needed for pecans

● There is no way to mechanize the picking of peaches, but pecan harvesting is heavily mechanized

◆ “Shellers” are people who buy nuts, shell them and sell them

➔ More about Pearson Farms

◆ It’s a family farm… most farmers have inherited farms. It’s very rare for people to buy farms because they’re so asset heavy ● Input costs are always on the rise mainly due to farm labor ◆ Pearson doesn’t introduce anything foreign to the peaches, thus they’re never genetically modified

● Pearson has an engineer that crosses peach flowers (pollen to stigma of another flower)... this is selective breeding ◆ Remember: PECANS = AUTOMATED

 PEARS = MANUAL

★ Urban Farming 

● By the end of the 20th century, 80% ​Americans live in urban centers → people no longer know who grows their food We also discuss several other topics like Gross profit margin refers to what?

● People start growing food on rooftops / freeway medians / front yards

● Farm animals are kept on the balcony

○ These statements describe the first video advertisement → the music added a dramatic effect as well to manipulate

the information

IMPORTANT: Urban farming CAN’T feed entire cities, but it CAN connect people with their food and where it comes from

- What is URBAN AGRICULTURE?

➢ Any type of cultivation, processing and distribution of food in or around a village, town or city

○ Can involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, horticulture, etc.

○ Victory gardens → vegetable, fruit and herb gardens

planted at private residences and public parks

➢ LOW-TECH urban ag. (this is what people traditionally think of when thinking about urban ag.)

○ Takes advantage of existing urban areas for conversion to traditional agricultural methods

○ Includes community gardens / farmer markets / individual lots

○ However, a lot of urban ag. can be commercial operations (even though people don’t always use high-tech tools, they can still produce a lot of crops)

- RULE BREAKER → productive agriculture does not have to be huge We also discuss several other topics like What is lantern?

■ Think of the video → 4000 square foot farm with 400

varieties of fruits, veggies and edible flowers… brings

in $20,000 a year and family feeds themselves and

the market

➢ MEDIUM-TECH urban ag. = bringing new agricultural technology into an urban environment

○ Includes hydroponic (growing products in a soilless medium… this one has a bad rap for producing tasteless products)

○ Aquaponics (introduce fish to crops through symbiotic relationship… the fish provide nutrients for the plants and the plants clean water for the fish)

- RULE BREAKER → Productive ag. doesn’t always need soil

➢ HIGH-TECH urban ag. = incorporate innovative agricultural technologies into the planning phase of urban development ○ Farms that are built much like in the form of a skyscraper ○ Includes vertical farming → think of the Living Skyscraper in Chicago (on Lake Michigan) or the Oliver Forest… also think of the building in Australia (natural light is important so don’t let the building get in the way of itself)

- RULE BREAKER → large-scale​ productive ag. doesn’t always need rural areas to grow (LOCATION doesn’t control everything)

NOTE: ​there are always positive and negative trade-offs when dealing with urban ag.

Positive

Negative

- Reduces blight

- Transparency (connects people with their food)

- Creates conflicts (because of things like animal smell) - Traceable (USDA has the ability to trace back where the food came from)

Don't forget about the age old question of What is boredom?

● NOTE​: it cost about $585.14 to start up a chicken coup… that’s $50 per egg… is it worth it? Yes actually, because after about 2 years (once you’ve factored in additional feeding costs but also the amount of eggs produced) eggs are about 40 cents or $5 a dozen… think long term!

● NOTE​: Tri-state wars over water include: Alabama, Georgia and Florida

● NOTE​: What’s at stake in Florida? -Oysters

● NOTE​: There’s a North Dekalb Mall community garden (basically right next to the mall and most people have no idea about it)

VIDEO SUMMARIES: 

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7p2CqnGyY 

○ Video about Atlanta and urban ag → about 60% of population will eventually live in cities… Westside Trail in Atlanta Beltline is one of the first urban farms in the area (successful yields for the first year… supplies city residents with fresh vegetables)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0mioti7ZbE 

○ What is urban ag? → poses questions and challenges regarding how to successfully incorporate agriculture into urban areas (like how to deal with agricultural waste, water, sustainability, etc.) ● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCmTJkZy0rM 

○ Pasadena, California → 4,000 square foot home / farm that has $20,000 yearly income… produces large variety of vegetables and edible flowers for the family, community and surrounding chefs (supports idea that location and size doesn’t always matter when regarding large-scale productive ag)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TBrgRsjR-JQ 

○ Vertical farm design known as The Living Skyscraper in Chicago (talks about different design details that would entail the highest possible productivity)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DMylpQqVKI 

○ Discussion of aquaponics → lady starts aquaponic farm at house… consists of symbiotic and natural relationship between fish and water → they provide each other with nutrients,

cleanliness and oxygen

★ Advertising and Agriculture 

● How does advertising affect the cultural view of food and agriculture?

○ Advertisement = used to announce and praise a produce or service in some public medium of communication in

order to induce people to buy or use it

○ Compare Sanderson Farms to Perdue Farms

■ Sanderson → tries to play the “all chickens are

antibiotic free- duh…” role / doesn’t even show

chickens in the video. They try to be realistic and use

LOGOS

■ Perdue → “Antibiotic free! Fresh herbs! Feed the

chickens only the best!” This video has happy music

and tries to make the chickens look all cute and

healthy… very opposite of Sanderson’s tactics

○ Persuasion Techniques includes:

■ PATHOS: appeal to emotion

● Evokes an emotional response within a viewer

(there’s wide range of emotions you can

provoke… happiness, guilt, anger, etc.)

● Could provoke happiness by showing someone

enjoying a product, maybe with an element of

humor

● Fear and guilt are usually provoked through

mistreated animal commercials

● Pain, empathy portrayed through medicine

commercials

■ LOGOS: appeal to reason

● Data driven arguments… “STRAIGHT FACTS”

● Give evidence and statistics needed to fully

understand a product

■ ETHOS: appeal to credibility or character

● Try to persuade viewer that a company is more

reliable, honest, credible, ethical than another

company

● NOTE​:

- these are rarely used alone… most advertisements

combine all three together

- These techniques are not isolated in the market… we (humans) persuade people all the time… it’s a very early learned human behavior

● CULTURAL IMPACT of advertisements

Intrinsic Values

Extrinsic Values

- More interested in the COMMUNITY

- Includes affiliation / self-acceptance /

community /

benevolence /

universalism

- Most common in

America or other

affluent societies 

- “how do I look to the rest of the world?”

- Includes conformity / image / financial

success /

achievement / power

○ To put different cultures into perspective, Latinos, for example, are more willing to work extra hours in exchange for community soccer fields rather than more wealth…

whereas Americans would probably want to get paid more instead.

○ While most Americans have been known to focus on

extrinsic values, there has been a recent shift where we think “bigger picture” now and focus more on the

community

● Implicative Advertising

○ Implying that others (competitors) engage in some activity through one’s own denial

● Propaganda

○ Biased misleading info used to promote / publicize a particular political cause or point of view

- Think of the HSUS (Humane Society)... they use really sad music and sad images of pet animals to convey their message (and to be highly persuasive)... however anti-HSUS organizations claims the HSUS is a scam (and that money donated locally instead is more effective)

● Be familiar with the different types of advertising techniques (especially BANDWAGON)

● Also be familiar with the different types of intrinsic and extrinsic values (most of them are pretty self-explanatory)

★ Guest speaker: Juanfra 

● His entire life story:

○ He’s corporate head of food safety with Wayne Farm

(outside of Gainesville)

○ From Lima, Peru

○ Went to NYE party one year and helped a lady carry some boxes full of food… he asked where the food came from

and she said she made it → first time Juanfra (J) became

interested in the production of food

○ Eventually goes to National Agricultural University of La Molina in Lima (which only has 4,000 students but in Lima that’s huge)... went there for 5 years

○ He’s only able to get into the college he wants because a girl left as an exchange student to the U.S. which left the

last spot open to J… spot 28… he takes this as a wakeup call… no more partying :(

○ Has to learn English (dad’s request)... learns it in four months in Minnesota

○ Cultural shock → J hates America at first (remember

Reticular Activating System) but then learns to “live” there and starts to enjoy it

○ Talks about HACCP in the hallway and advanced food microbiology professor overhears him and offers him a job for a research project… they end up studying

fluoroquinolone resistance among Avian E. Coli

○ Eventually he gets a job at Perdue Farms as a production supervisor… after three months becomes quality assurance supervisor

○ Note​: If Georgia was its own country, it would be the top 6th producer of poultry world wide

★ Food Fads 

● Afganistan video:

○ people are pastoral (raise animals)

○ It’s hard to find water (usually have to break ice and get water underneath)

○ Make a lot of milk and heat it to get curd

○ Make butter and store it in sheep stomach

○ Have to trade to get flour (to make bread)

● FOOD FADS → intense / widely shared enthusiasm for something (usually short-lived without basis on object’s qualities)

○ Define diet in two different ways:

■ Scientific = kinds of foods persons / animals /

community habitually eats

■ Common = special course of food to which one

restricts oneself for either weight loss, medical or

religious reasons

○ Food fads fit right into the extrinsic value known as

conformity 

■ Closely associated with the advertising technique

known as bandwagon

■ Video in class: in the 30’s and 40’s there was a

vitamin craze… so advertisers jumped on the

opportunity and marketed everything they could with vitamins (vitamin beer, vitamin donuts, vitamin

everything)

○ Importance of Kellogg brothers

■ One was a businessman and the other was a doctor ■ In early 1900’s Dr. John Kellogg warns america of the dangers of a high-protein, high-fat diet (because a common breakfast consisted of milk, eggs, a lot of bacon)

■ Starts a sanitorium in Michigan where rich people could come and “cleanse” their diets

■ The doctor and his brother create Corn Flakes

(claimed it was healthier for breakfast)... targeted

kids (so advertised toys on the boxes)

■ While ready-to-eat cereal was very popular for a while, its popularity has greatly decreased over the years but oatmeal’s popularity has grown

● A Fad for Every Decade:

○ 1920’s →

- Home refrigeration

■ Replaced natural ice… now people could store and preserve food for much longer periods of time

■ Note: fresh fruits, veggies, canning and smoked

meats were popular in the south prior to

refrigeration because they didn’t go bad so quickly in the summer heat… it was always cooler in the North so canning and smoked meats weren’t as popular

there

- Jell-O

■ Powdered flavored gelatin invented in the early

1900’s but jell-o mold become a cultural

phenomenon at dinner parties in the 20’s

○ 1930’s →

- Casseroles

■ Combine leftovers to reduce waste (because this was during the Great Depression, so every piece of food needed to be saved)

○ 1940’s →

- SPAM

■ WWII occurred, soldiers went overseas, needed quick access to food → introduced to highly

processed foods with extended shelf lives

■ Soldiers got accustomed to eating that kind of food and wanted more of it when they returned to

America

○ 1950’s →

- TV Dinners

■ Post WWII families were eating dinner in front of a new technology: the TV

■ These meals were convenient

○ 1960’s →

- Fondue

■ Came from Switzerland (communal pot containing melting cheese)

■ Brought a sense of community to the American dinner table… sharing appealed to Americans at this time because there was a transition from extrinsic values to intrinsic values

- Tang

■ Fruit flavored drink created in 1957 and marketed in powdered form in 1959… however its sales literally sky-rocketed when John Glenn brought it with him on one of his 1962 NASA missions

○ 1970’s →

- Crockpot cooking

■ Notion of the working mom … moms no longer have time to cook (cultural feminist shift where women

spend less time in the kitchen and more time in the work world)

■ “Slow cooking” becomes very popular… can just let it sit and cook all day until it’s ready at night when everyone gets home

- Egg McMuffin

■ Created in 1972 (Ray Kroc) and caused the breakfast trade at McDonalds to sky-rocket

■ Saved the egg industry

○ 1980’s →

- Pasta salads

■ Chilled pasta, veggies, cheeses, meats

■ Convenient… fits in with the “working mom”

○ 1990’s →

- Fat-free potato chip

■ Uses Olestra (calorie and cholesterol-free fat substitute)

■ Made crazy profit

■ However, many consumers started having adverse digestive issues (like diarrhea)

○ 2000’s →

■ Touts dangers of high-carb, high starch diet (exact opposite of what Dr. Kellogg was claiming in the early 1900’s)

■ Hugely popular… 1 in every 10 americans were consuming Atkins products

○ 2010’s →

- Eating raw

■ No cooked or processed food… “everything natural” ■ Based on misconception that early humans “ate raw” but here’s the truth:

● Cooking breaks down plant cellulose and

denatures protein

● So when we first ate raw protein we spent

most of our energy denaturing protein… but

when we started cooking, that energy could go

to our brains instead, allowing us to become

the Homo Sapiens that we are today

■ So it’s good to cook food!

NOTE: ​it’s as though we’ve flipped… we used to want to store calories in order to survive but now we have abundant processed foods and calories but don’t want to store them

VIDEO SUMMARIES​ for food fads

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwlDCHeOpKE&t=40s - We Are What We Eat → Afganistan (rely on herding animals, make a lot of cheese, milk and curd… to make the bread they have to travel and trade animals and other products for flour)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZ75TbJnLDg 

- Talks about the beginning of food fads (one of the biggest, most original fads → vitamin… find “vitamins” in everything, even donuts

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anwy2MPT5RE 

- Remember that Monty Python comedy video is about → SPAM !!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wpfwu__PF7Y 

- Why do we cook? → cooking denatures proteins and other things in foods and meats… so when we eat cooked food our body doesn’t have to expend that extra energy towards denaturing things in order to digest them… that means we have more energy to use with our brains → brains get larger and we get smarter (reason why Homo Sapiens emerged)

★ Notes from Food, Inc. 

Food, Inc. Notes

● industrial food system began with fast food (Ray Kroc and partners invent new food industry… fired carhops, got rid of most things on menu and brought factory system to back of restaurant kitchen)

● each worker does just one thing over and over… employees = pay them less and replaceable ● top four beef producers control about 80% of the market

● tyson = biggest meat packing industry in world

● farmers have debt so are forced to stay with company (then you have to constantly upgrade so you’re basically always in debt or lose contract)

● Farmers = $500,000 borrowed and make about $18,000 a year

● Cornfield in Iowa is where most of the supermarket food products can be traced back to ● 30% of our land bases are being farmed for corn

● Corn is found in almost everything, especially processed foods

● The average American = 200 pounds of meat consumed per person per year ● CFO —> concentrated animal feeding operation (animals are fed corn because it’s cheap and makes them fat… even though they’re meant to feed on grass)

● E. Coli emerges because of corn diet in cows

● E. Coli has now been found in many other products

● FDA conducts way less food safety processes since 1974

● 13 slaughterhouses today compared to 1000’s in the 70’s —> odds increase that at least one animal is carrying a pathogen

● young boy died from E. Coli meat recall … moral of story is USDA and FDA aren’t that great at protecting us from fowl food “Industry was more protected than my son”

● Salt, fat, and sugar is what we tend to crave (rare in nature)… much cheaper to buy fast food than fresh vegetables

● largest slaughterhouse in the word (Tar Hill) in the middle of economically depressed area (Smithfield)

● workers get arrested before managers who hired them do

● Upton Sinclair, T. Roosevelt —> good food industry but then fast food speeds everything up ● NAFTA Mexican farmers put out of work because too much corn was coming from America… so then those Mexicans immigrate to U.S. to work at factories there

The Culture of “Food, Inc.” 

● be a healthy skeptic about everything! “inquiring into the nature of things” ...You have to care ● Documentary —> a movie, television show or radio that provides a factual record or report (supposed to exclude personal opinion)… very few docs that completely follow the definition ● Imagery (show cows from different angle… superimpose images to make a “fake” image) ● bad people filmed in darker room with a tilted effect (to add drama and make “bad” person appear evil or shady)

● Good people filmed in beautiful settings (think of the farmer and how he’s always out on a sunny day with happy pigs walking around him)... or the main writer guy who is always filmed in a sunny, casual, friendly setting

● Cause and effect —> what you’re looking for when you inquire into the nature of things ○ Fact = Effect, but Cause isn’t always = to Fact … for Food, Inc. they’re saying the cause of us being more removed from production of our food is the “fact” that giant ag/food companies hide the truth from us

○ Or is the cause because we leave it up to others to work out the details (For example, we usually don’t know who the pilot of our airplane ride is… does that mean Delta is deliberately colluding truth from us because we don’t know who the pilot is? Probably not. It means we aren’t inquiring.)

○ No bones in meat… because big ag colludes facts? or just trying to meet demands? ○ Main idea: Consumers have huge effects on any type of industry… thus, when it comes to big ag/food companies, they’re not just shaping us… we’re also shaping them. You have to look at both sides of that statement in order to make an educated and “big-picture" assumption

● Look over slides!

● Good idea to watch ALL videos uploaded on ELC (at least know what each one is about)

● Look at past journal entries (videos are included in some of them)

GOOD LUCK ON TEST 2!!

AESC Study Guide Test 2

★ Guest speaker 1: Director of Georgia Farm Bureau 

● Georgia Farm Bureau was established in 1937 as an organization to allow farmers to have a unified voice in the farming arena - Consolidated farmers to strengthen voice

- Guest speaker’s focus = state-level lobbying, including things like taxes / environment / farms

- He works with 20 commodity advisory committees (which are grassroots organizations, meaning that the problems to be considered come straight from the producers /

farmers)

● Some dynamics

- There are 56 senators and 180 house members in

Congress

- There are about 937 lobbyists → so 3.9 lobbyist for every elected official

- There’s the American Farm Bureau (national level) → currently working on immigration, labor, and disaster

assistance issues

- AFB has 40 days to pass or not pass anything

★ Guest speaker 2: Lawton Pearson 

● 5th generation peach and pecan grower for Fort Valley, GA ○ Farms 1500 acres of peaches and 3000 acres pecans ○ Uses www.pearsonfarms.com as a way to reach more people (because his farm is kind of in the middle of

nowhere)

➔ PEACHES

◆ A fruit that grows on a tree (takes about 10-12 years to fully grow)

◆ Adds phosphate to soil, gets PH just right, then plants tiny tree → the first 1-3 years = a few peaches but around 5-10 years = major profit and then at about 13 years = get rid of tree

◆ There are MANY varieties of peaches but they only last about 2 weeks so it’s hard to market a particular variety (in other words, it’s hard to pick only one type of variety at a time)

◆ California makes fully red peaches to hide bruises (and they’re huge) but it’s hard to grow those type of peaches in GA ◆ GA’s signature peach is yellow and orange (Pearson is intent on keeping color of peach in order to keep flavor the same) ◆ When there’s a chill in the weather it “triggers” the peaches and then they bloom → if there’s a frost in the middle of the bloom, the peaches freeze and many get ruined

◆ Peaches need about 900 hours of chill

◆ Peaches aren’t just shaken out of trees because some are ripe while others aren’t… thus varieties are picked based on zone ◆ Sometimes the trees are thinned so more nutrients can get to fewer peaches, making the peaches bigger

◆ ONLY peaches that are RIPE are picked

➔ PECANS

◆ Plants pecans in peach orchards to constantly and consistently make money

◆ Pecans = antioxidant rich, and recently there’s been a global trend towards nut consumption

◆ Pecans are less risky than peaches to grow because:

● For twice the acreage, only ¼ of the labor needed for peaches is needed for pecans

● There is no way to mechanize the picking of peaches, but pecan harvesting is heavily mechanized

◆ “Shellers” are people who buy nuts, shell them and sell them

➔ More about Pearson Farms

◆ It’s a family farm… most farmers have inherited farms. It’s very rare for people to buy farms because they’re so asset heavy ● Input costs are always on the rise mainly due to farm labor ◆ Pearson doesn’t introduce anything foreign to the peaches, thus they’re never genetically modified

● Pearson has an engineer that crosses peach flowers (pollen to stigma of another flower)... this is selective breeding ◆ Remember: PECANS = AUTOMATED

 PEARS = MANUAL

★ Urban Farming 

● By the end of the 20th century, 80% ​Americans live in urban centers → people no longer know who grows their food

● People start growing food on rooftops / freeway medians / front yards

● Farm animals are kept on the balcony

○ These statements describe the first video advertisement → the music added a dramatic effect as well to manipulate

the information

IMPORTANT: Urban farming CAN’T feed entire cities, but it CAN connect people with their food and where it comes from

- What is URBAN AGRICULTURE?

➢ Any type of cultivation, processing and distribution of food in or around a village, town or city

○ Can involve animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, horticulture, etc.

○ Victory gardens → vegetable, fruit and herb gardens

planted at private residences and public parks

➢ LOW-TECH urban ag. (this is what people traditionally think of when thinking about urban ag.)

○ Takes advantage of existing urban areas for conversion to traditional agricultural methods

○ Includes community gardens / farmer markets / individual lots

○ However, a lot of urban ag. can be commercial operations (even though people don’t always use high-tech tools, they can still produce a lot of crops)

- RULE BREAKER → productive agriculture does not have to be huge

■ Think of the video → 4000 square foot farm with 400

varieties of fruits, veggies and edible flowers… brings

in $20,000 a year and family feeds themselves and

the market

➢ MEDIUM-TECH urban ag. = bringing new agricultural technology into an urban environment

○ Includes hydroponic (growing products in a soilless medium… this one has a bad rap for producing tasteless products)

○ Aquaponics (introduce fish to crops through symbiotic relationship… the fish provide nutrients for the plants and the plants clean water for the fish)

- RULE BREAKER → Productive ag. doesn’t always need soil

➢ HIGH-TECH urban ag. = incorporate innovative agricultural technologies into the planning phase of urban development ○ Farms that are built much like in the form of a skyscraper ○ Includes vertical farming → think of the Living Skyscraper in Chicago (on Lake Michigan) or the Oliver Forest… also think of the building in Australia (natural light is important so don’t let the building get in the way of itself)

- RULE BREAKER → large-scale​ productive ag. doesn’t always need rural areas to grow (LOCATION doesn’t control everything)

NOTE: ​there are always positive and negative trade-offs when dealing with urban ag.

Positive

Negative

- Reduces blight

- Transparency (connects people with their food)

- Creates conflicts (because of things like animal smell) - Traceable (USDA has the ability to trace back where the food came from)

● NOTE​: it cost about $585.14 to start up a chicken coup… that’s $50 per egg… is it worth it? Yes actually, because after about 2 years (once you’ve factored in additional feeding costs but also the amount of eggs produced) eggs are about 40 cents or $5 a dozen… think long term!

● NOTE​: Tri-state wars over water include: Alabama, Georgia and Florida

● NOTE​: What’s at stake in Florida? -Oysters

● NOTE​: There’s a North Dekalb Mall community garden (basically right next to the mall and most people have no idea about it)

VIDEO SUMMARIES: 

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL7p2CqnGyY 

○ Video about Atlanta and urban ag → about 60% of population will eventually live in cities… Westside Trail in Atlanta Beltline is one of the first urban farms in the area (successful yields for the first year… supplies city residents with fresh vegetables)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0mioti7ZbE 

○ What is urban ag? → poses questions and challenges regarding how to successfully incorporate agriculture into urban areas (like how to deal with agricultural waste, water, sustainability, etc.) ● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCmTJkZy0rM 

○ Pasadena, California → 4,000 square foot home / farm that has $20,000 yearly income… produces large variety of vegetables and edible flowers for the family, community and surrounding chefs (supports idea that location and size doesn’t always matter when regarding large-scale productive ag)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TBrgRsjR-JQ 

○ Vertical farm design known as The Living Skyscraper in Chicago (talks about different design details that would entail the highest possible productivity)

● https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4DMylpQqVKI 

○ Discussion of aquaponics → lady starts aquaponic farm at house… consists of symbiotic and natural relationship between fish and water → they provide each other with nutrients,

cleanliness and oxygen

★ Advertising and Agriculture 

● How does advertising affect the cultural view of food and agriculture?

○ Advertisement = used to announce and praise a produce or service in some public medium of communication in

order to induce people to buy or use it

○ Compare Sanderson Farms to Perdue Farms

■ Sanderson → tries to play the “all chickens are

antibiotic free- duh…” role / doesn’t even show

chickens in the video. They try to be realistic and use

LOGOS

■ Perdue → “Antibiotic free! Fresh herbs! Feed the

chickens only the best!” This video has happy music

and tries to make the chickens look all cute and

healthy… very opposite of Sanderson’s tactics

○ Persuasion Techniques includes:

■ PATHOS: appeal to emotion

● Evokes an emotional response within a viewer

(there’s wide range of emotions you can

provoke… happiness, guilt, anger, etc.)

● Could provoke happiness by showing someone

enjoying a product, maybe with an element of

humor

● Fear and guilt are usually provoked through

mistreated animal commercials

● Pain, empathy portrayed through medicine

commercials

■ LOGOS: appeal to reason

● Data driven arguments… “STRAIGHT FACTS”

● Give evidence and statistics needed to fully

understand a product

■ ETHOS: appeal to credibility or character

● Try to persuade viewer that a company is more

reliable, honest, credible, ethical than another

company

● NOTE​:

- these are rarely used alone… most advertisements

combine all three together

- These techniques are not isolated in the market… we (humans) persuade people all the time… it’s a very early learned human behavior

● CULTURAL IMPACT of advertisements

Intrinsic Values

Extrinsic Values

- More interested in the COMMUNITY

- Includes affiliation / self-acceptance /

community /

benevolence /

universalism

- Most common in

America or other

affluent societies 

- “how do I look to the rest of the world?”

- Includes conformity / image / financial

success /

achievement / power

○ To put different cultures into perspective, Latinos, for example, are more willing to work extra hours in exchange for community soccer fields rather than more wealth…

whereas Americans would probably want to get paid more instead.

○ While most Americans have been known to focus on

extrinsic values, there has been a recent shift where we think “bigger picture” now and focus more on the

community

● Implicative Advertising

○ Implying that others (competitors) engage in some activity through one’s own denial

● Propaganda

○ Biased misleading info used to promote / publicize a particular political cause or point of view

- Think of the HSUS (Humane Society)... they use really sad music and sad images of pet animals to convey their message (and to be highly persuasive)... however anti-HSUS organizations claims the HSUS is a scam (and that money donated locally instead is more effective)

● Be familiar with the different types of advertising techniques (especially BANDWAGON)

● Also be familiar with the different types of intrinsic and extrinsic values (most of them are pretty self-explanatory)

★ Guest speaker: Juanfra 

● His entire life story:

○ He’s corporate head of food safety with Wayne Farm

(outside of Gainesville)

○ From Lima, Peru

○ Went to NYE party one year and helped a lady carry some boxes full of food… he asked where the food came from

and she said she made it → first time Juanfra (J) became

interested in the production of food

○ Eventually goes to National Agricultural University of La Molina in Lima (which only has 4,000 students but in Lima that’s huge)... went there for 5 years

○ He’s only able to get into the college he wants because a girl left as an exchange student to the U.S. which left the

last spot open to J… spot 28… he takes this as a wakeup call… no more partying :(

○ Has to learn English (dad’s request)... learns it in four months in Minnesota

○ Cultural shock → J hates America at first (remember

Reticular Activating System) but then learns to “live” there and starts to enjoy it

○ Talks about HACCP in the hallway and advanced food microbiology professor overhears him and offers him a job for a research project… they end up studying

fluoroquinolone resistance among Avian E. Coli

○ Eventually he gets a job at Perdue Farms as a production supervisor… after three months becomes quality assurance supervisor

○ Note​: If Georgia was its own country, it would be the top 6th producer of poultry world wide

★ Food Fads 

● Afganistan video:

○ people are pastoral (raise animals)

○ It’s hard to find water (usually have to break ice and get water underneath)

○ Make a lot of milk and heat it to get curd

○ Make butter and store it in sheep stomach

○ Have to trade to get flour (to make bread)

● FOOD FADS → intense / widely shared enthusiasm for something (usually short-lived without basis on object’s qualities)

○ Define diet in two different ways:

■ Scientific = kinds of foods persons / animals /

community habitually eats

■ Common = special course of food to which one

restricts oneself for either weight loss, medical or

religious reasons

○ Food fads fit right into the extrinsic value known as

conformity 

■ Closely associated with the advertising technique

known as bandwagon

■ Video in class: in the 30’s and 40’s there was a

vitamin craze… so advertisers jumped on the

opportunity and marketed everything they could with vitamins (vitamin beer, vitamin donuts, vitamin

everything)

○ Importance of Kellogg brothers

■ One was a businessman and the other was a doctor ■ In early 1900’s Dr. John Kellogg warns america of the dangers of a high-protein, high-fat diet (because a common breakfast consisted of milk, eggs, a lot of bacon)

■ Starts a sanitorium in Michigan where rich people could come and “cleanse” their diets

■ The doctor and his brother create Corn Flakes

(claimed it was healthier for breakfast)... targeted

kids (so advertised toys on the boxes)

■ While ready-to-eat cereal was very popular for a while, its popularity has greatly decreased over the years but oatmeal’s popularity has grown

● A Fad for Every Decade:

○ 1920’s →

- Home refrigeration

■ Replaced natural ice… now people could store and preserve food for much longer periods of time

■ Note: fresh fruits, veggies, canning and smoked

meats were popular in the south prior to

refrigeration because they didn’t go bad so quickly in the summer heat… it was always cooler in the North so canning and smoked meats weren’t as popular

there

- Jell-O

■ Powdered flavored gelatin invented in the early

1900’s but jell-o mold become a cultural

phenomenon at dinner parties in the 20’s

○ 1930’s →

- Casseroles

■ Combine leftovers to reduce waste (because this was during the Great Depression, so every piece of food needed to be saved)

○ 1940’s →

- SPAM

■ WWII occurred, soldiers went overseas, needed quick access to food → introduced to highly

processed foods with extended shelf lives

■ Soldiers got accustomed to eating that kind of food and wanted more of it when they returned to

America

○ 1950’s →

- TV Dinners

■ Post WWII families were eating dinner in front of a new technology: the TV

■ These meals were convenient

○ 1960’s →

- Fondue

■ Came from Switzerland (communal pot containing melting cheese)

■ Brought a sense of community to the American dinner table… sharing appealed to Americans at this time because there was a transition from extrinsic values to intrinsic values

- Tang

■ Fruit flavored drink created in 1957 and marketed in powdered form in 1959… however its sales literally sky-rocketed when John Glenn brought it with him on one of his 1962 NASA missions

○ 1970’s →

- Crockpot cooking

■ Notion of the working mom … moms no longer have time to cook (cultural feminist shift where women

spend less time in the kitchen and more time in the work world)

■ “Slow cooking” becomes very popular… can just let it sit and cook all day until it’s ready at night when everyone gets home

- Egg McMuffin

■ Created in 1972 (Ray Kroc) and caused the breakfast trade at McDonalds to sky-rocket

■ Saved the egg industry

○ 1980’s →

- Pasta salads

■ Chilled pasta, veggies, cheeses, meats

■ Convenient… fits in with the “working mom”

○ 1990’s →

- Fat-free potato chip

■ Uses Olestra (calorie and cholesterol-free fat substitute)

■ Made crazy profit

■ However, many consumers started having adverse digestive issues (like diarrhea)

○ 2000’s →

■ Touts dangers of high-carb, high starch diet (exact opposite of what Dr. Kellogg was claiming in the early 1900’s)

■ Hugely popular… 1 in every 10 americans were consuming Atkins products

○ 2010’s →

- Eating raw

■ No cooked or processed food… “everything natural” ■ Based on misconception that early humans “ate raw” but here’s the truth:

● Cooking breaks down plant cellulose and

denatures protein

● So when we first ate raw protein we spent

most of our energy denaturing protein… but

when we started cooking, that energy could go

to our brains instead, allowing us to become

the Homo Sapiens that we are today

■ So it’s good to cook food!

NOTE: ​it’s as though we’ve flipped… we used to want to store calories in order to survive but now we have abundant processed foods and calories but don’t want to store them

VIDEO SUMMARIES​ for food fads

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lwlDCHeOpKE&t=40s - We Are What We Eat → Afganistan (rely on herding animals, make a lot of cheese, milk and curd… to make the bread they have to travel and trade animals and other products for flour)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZ75TbJnLDg 

- Talks about the beginning of food fads (one of the biggest, most original fads → vitamin… find “vitamins” in everything, even donuts

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=anwy2MPT5RE 

- Remember that Monty Python comedy video is about → SPAM !!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wpfwu__PF7Y 

- Why do we cook? → cooking denatures proteins and other things in foods and meats… so when we eat cooked food our body doesn’t have to expend that extra energy towards denaturing things in order to digest them… that means we have more energy to use with our brains → brains get larger and we get smarter (reason why Homo Sapiens emerged)

★ Notes from Food, Inc. 

Food, Inc. Notes

● industrial food system began with fast food (Ray Kroc and partners invent new food industry… fired carhops, got rid of most things on menu and brought factory system to back of restaurant kitchen)

● each worker does just one thing over and over… employees = pay them less and replaceable ● top four beef producers control about 80% of the market

● tyson = biggest meat packing industry in world

● farmers have debt so are forced to stay with company (then you have to constantly upgrade so you’re basically always in debt or lose contract)

● Farmers = $500,000 borrowed and make about $18,000 a year

● Cornfield in Iowa is where most of the supermarket food products can be traced back to ● 30% of our land bases are being farmed for corn

● Corn is found in almost everything, especially processed foods

● The average American = 200 pounds of meat consumed per person per year ● CFO —> concentrated animal feeding operation (animals are fed corn because it’s cheap and makes them fat… even though they’re meant to feed on grass)

● E. Coli emerges because of corn diet in cows

● E. Coli has now been found in many other products

● FDA conducts way less food safety processes since 1974

● 13 slaughterhouses today compared to 1000’s in the 70’s —> odds increase that at least one animal is carrying a pathogen

● young boy died from E. Coli meat recall … moral of story is USDA and FDA aren’t that great at protecting us from fowl food “Industry was more protected than my son”

● Salt, fat, and sugar is what we tend to crave (rare in nature)… much cheaper to buy fast food than fresh vegetables

● largest slaughterhouse in the word (Tar Hill) in the middle of economically depressed area (Smithfield)

● workers get arrested before managers who hired them do

● Upton Sinclair, T. Roosevelt —> good food industry but then fast food speeds everything up ● NAFTA Mexican farmers put out of work because too much corn was coming from America… so then those Mexicans immigrate to U.S. to work at factories there

The Culture of “Food, Inc.” 

● be a healthy skeptic about everything! “inquiring into the nature of things” ...You have to care ● Documentary —> a movie, television show or radio that provides a factual record or report (supposed to exclude personal opinion)… very few docs that completely follow the definition ● Imagery (show cows from different angle… superimpose images to make a “fake” image) ● bad people filmed in darker room with a tilted effect (to add drama and make “bad” person appear evil or shady)

● Good people filmed in beautiful settings (think of the farmer and how he’s always out on a sunny day with happy pigs walking around him)... or the main writer guy who is always filmed in a sunny, casual, friendly setting

● Cause and effect —> what you’re looking for when you inquire into the nature of things ○ Fact = Effect, but Cause isn’t always = to Fact … for Food, Inc. they’re saying the cause of us being more removed from production of our food is the “fact” that giant ag/food companies hide the truth from us

○ Or is the cause because we leave it up to others to work out the details (For example, we usually don’t know who the pilot of our airplane ride is… does that mean Delta is deliberately colluding truth from us because we don’t know who the pilot is? Probably not. It means we aren’t inquiring.)

○ No bones in meat… because big ag colludes facts? or just trying to meet demands? ○ Main idea: Consumers have huge effects on any type of industry… thus, when it comes to big ag/food companies, they’re not just shaping us… we’re also shaping them. You have to look at both sides of that statement in order to make an educated and “big-picture" assumption

● Look over slides!

● Good idea to watch ALL videos uploaded on ELC (at least know what each one is about)

● Look at past journal entries (videos are included in some of them)

GOOD LUCK ON TEST 2!!

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