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Ecology and Evolution 11216486 - Class Notes - Week 7

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Ecology and Evolution 11216486 - Class Notes - Week 7

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background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     03/01/2018  COURSE ### Principles of Evolution    
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From previous sections     - Term/Concept ​ - Mendelian Genetics, Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium,  Extensions,Continuous Variation (quantitative genetics), Darwinian Synthesis,   
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Chapter 09: Population Genetics   - Term ​ - Beginnings  - Term ​ - Sources of Variation   - More explanation  - Definitions:  Let us remind us of the definitions of some of the terms I will  be using along. Take a look at Futuyma, chapter 9, or at your genetics  book to refresh your memory.   - Phenotype:  any morphological, physiological, anatomical, or measurable  feature of an organisms.. Different organisms can manifest the same  phenotype.  - Genotype: underlying genetic constitution of an individual, coded in its  DNA; sometimes in reference to a particular genetic locus, sometimes in  reference to the whole genome. The phenotype notwithstanding,  genotype is heritable part of our evolutionary story.   - Locus:  typically a site on a chromosome, or the gene that occupies that  site.  - Gene:  usually, the unit of DNA that codes for product. Basically viewed as  a unit of inheritance, concept a little fuzzy around the molecular edges.   - Allele:  a particular form or a gene, either detected by its phenotype  effects or by DNA methods. Phylogenetically, a character state for a  particular gene.  
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     03/01/2018  - Haplotype:  A strong of alleles at different loci along chromosomes,  usually inherited as a unit, barring recombination but often having a  myriad of phenotypic effects.   - Mutation:  Any novel variant of a gene, due to change in the DNA  sequence. Also the process by which such changes occur.   - More explanation  - What natural selection sees is the phenotype not the genes underneath.  Now that is important because if that trait under consideration is uttley  plastic,  then picking the winners is irrelevant to evolution, because the  winners are genetically the same as the losers. Phenotypic differences  have to be heritable for the trait to evolve.   - What are the sources? When you look at phenotype, there are actually  three or four different things that it might represent. In practice, particular  traits are combination of two or more these factors, and we often have to  disentangle.   - Genetic differences:  caused by differences in the allelic constitution  inherited from the parents. In most cases are inherited from both  parents,but with sex linkage or for cytoplasmic genomes.   - Environmental Differences:  environmental effects can change the  course of developmental or the expression of particular genes, so that  some of the differences among individuals are caused by environmental  differences.   - Maternal effects:  Phenotypic manifestation in the offspring that is result  of maternal factors passed down in utero in physiological fashion.  Expression in the offspring is thus determined either by maternal  genotype or b maternal environmental influences. (When mothers who  are learning english help their kids with homework, kids tend to score  lower)    - How can we tell the differences?  - We can do crosses  Term-​ Genetic Variation   - More explanation  
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     03/01/2018  - Frequences: our primary substrate in this area is a set of allele and  genotypic frequencies obtained in the following fashion. Imagine a locus  with two alleles   - P11= (N11/N)= 16/50.   - P22 (N22/N)= 8/50  - P12 (N12/N)= 26/50    - Allele frequencies:     - HWE:   NICE FIGURE   
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     03/01/2018  - Relevance in Evolution:  The point of HWE is that anything that violates  the assumptions will move the population off equilibrium. In a sense  evolution is what happens when the population is not an equilibrium.If we  look at just between one year HWE ‘fits like a glove’ but if we watch it  over time, it moves in this case very slowly. That is how evolution works.     Rare allele triple in frequency   - Term- ​ Variation within populations  - More explanation   - It turns out that there are enormous amounts of genetic variation within  most population of outbreeding species. In principle, that ought to provide  plenty of substrate for evolution.  Recessive allele frequency p2=.001  - Mutational Load:  Now at HWE, we expect p22= (p2)^2 (.001)^2 or  10^-6. The A2A2 homozygote is maladaptive, perhaps even lethal but 

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Department: OTHER
Course: PRINC OF EVOLUTION
Professor: P. SMOUSE
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: population, Genectics, Biology, and Ecology
Name: Lecture 12 and 13 notes
Description: This week we have covered Population Genetics and Genetics Drift
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
16 Pages 30 Views 24 Unlocks
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