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UIC / Psychology / PSYCH 270 / What are the component parts of the definition of psychological disord

What are the component parts of the definition of psychological disord

What are the component parts of the definition of psychological disord

Description

School: University of Illinois at Chicago
Department: Psychology
Course: Abnormal Psychology
Professor: Marie chesaniuk
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psch 270- abnormal psychology
Description: Exam 1 study guide
Uploaded: 03/05/2018
44 Pages 104 Views 2 Unlocks
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PSCH 270 Chapter 3 Study Guide


What are the component parts of the definition of psychological disorder?



STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS AND KEY

Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment

Please remember that if you simply follow the slides in answering the questions below,  doing study guides will be super easy for you.

1. What are the component parts of the definition of psychological disorder?

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

 

1. Which of the options below reflect the criteria for psychological disorder? a. parents and a maternal grandparent suffer from psychological disorder

b. risk of harm to self or others 

c. no longer able to go to work

d. b & c

e. all of the above

2. Lucy describes a visit by their recently deceased mother. “She sat on the edge of my bed.  She told me that she wanted me to make up with my sister. We haven’t spoken to each other in two years.” Lucy said. Lucy swore this wasn’t a dream. She was very happy about her  encounter. The clinician who met with Lucy is trying to decide if there is psychological  disorder. Which of the following would be the correct assessment?

a. Lucy is hallucinating

b. Whether Lucy is hallucinating depends on whether such ‘visits’ are out of the  ordinary for how her family and culture think

c. Auditory hallucinations are more common so Lucy having visual hallucinations  definitely signals psychological disorder

d. Lucy is not distressed about this event so there can’t be any disorder

e. b & d


Why should we diagnose? what purposes does a classification system for diagnosing disorders serve?



We also discuss several other topics like Which caribbean island has the best economy?

Psychological disorders: a pattern of thoughts, feelings or behaviors that cause significant  personal distress, impairment in daily life, or significant risk of harm, any of which is  unusual for the context and culture in which it arises.  We also discuss several other topics like What are the five main categories of promotion?
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2. Why should we diagnose? What purposes does a classification system for diagnosing  disorders serve? 

If the classification system did not exist, different sorts of unusual behavior could be  described but there would be no labels for them. For example: if there was no diagnose for  depression, then we would not be able to distinguish between a common response to a  negative event, and an episode of depressed mode that might lead to suicide. Moreover, 

without a classification system there would be no words to describe people’s experiences and there would be no measures to normality. Also, it would be difficult for clinicians and  researchers to learn from different cases and decide how to help people with unusual  symptoms. 


What is a clinical assessment? what are the bases on which a clinician bases her diagnosis?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of a dysthymic episode?

Classification provides the following benefits: 

­ They provide a type of shorthand, which enables clinicians and researchers to use a small  number of words instead of lengthy descriptions.

­ They allow clinicians and researchers to group certain abnormal thoughts and feelings  into unique constellations.

­ A particular diagnosis may also convey information about etiology and causes of the  disorder, its course, and indications for its treatment.

­ Classification systems also enable researchers to study the cause, the course, the effects  of treatment for various disorders. 

­ A diagnose can indicate that an individual is in need of attention, treatment, support…etc. ­ Some people find great relief in learning that they are not alone in having particular  problems. 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. In order to be able to diagnose, we have to 

a. have some basis of normalcy against which to compare the behavior of the  person we are trying to diagnose

b. be sure to get at least two independent opinions on diagnosis and make sure that  there is at least 85% agreement among those who are diagnosing

c. use DSM­IV criteria

d. a & b

e. all of the above

2. A classification system for diagnosing allows a clinician to

a. be able to describe a condition in a few words

b. to get a sense of the development of a disorder and how to treat it

c. examine the effects of treatment

d. a, b & c

e. all of the above

We also discuss several other topics like What are metameres?

3. What is a clinical assessment? What are the bases on which a clinician bases her  diagnosis? What are some things to be careful about regarding diagnosis?

Clinical assessment: the process of obtaining relevant information and making a judgement about mental illness based on the information. They also provide information about the specific ways  in which and the degree to which an individual I impaired. 

A diagnose: identification of the nature of a disorder. It is made by assigning a patient’s  symptoms to a specific classification. It allows you to know more about than was initially  apparent. A diagnose suggest the disorder’s cause, its course, and treatment. It might also  indicate why other people with the same symptoms developed this disorder, and also indicate  treatment. The diagnose is based on patient information obtained through interviews,  observations, and tests. 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Dr. Shrink is meeting with Kent, a 41­year­old male, presenting for services. His  complaints include trouble sleeping, being overweight, having trouble breathing, and  tension with his family. What is a possible source(s) of information she could use as a  basis for making that diagnosis?  

a. an interview with the patient presenting for services

b. an interview with the patient’s co­workers

c. talking to the patient’s doctor

d. administering some psychological tests

e. a, c, d 

If you want to learn more check out How do you find the magnitude and direction of a vector?

4. What was the Rosenhan study about? What were the main study findings? What was  the point of our discussing it in class?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. In Rosenhan’s study 

a. Undergraduate college students got jobs at 12 different psychiatric facilities as  ‘mental health aides’ and ‘spied’ on patients 

b. Significant problems were seen in staff’s ability to distinguish the sane from  the insane 

c. Intimate relationships were observed between two staff and three patients d. Unsanitary conditions

e. All of the above

5. What did the Bem Sex Role Inventory study by Landrine and her colleagues (1995)  show and what is the relevance of this information to conducting psychological  assessments of people?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. The Bem Sex Role Inventory study illustrated 

a. The difference in androgyny scores across women from different races and  ethnicities

b. That women from different race and ethnic backgrounds defined terms in the questionnaire differently

c. That despite the fact that women from different race and ethnic backgrounds  defined terms in the questionnaire differently, there were still no differences  between them on androgyny scores 

d. That it is very important to make sure that culturally relevant 

measures are used in scientific research

e. b, c, d

6. What data do clinicians typically gather through ‘observation’ during a psychological  assessment? Be able to give examples of each.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Regarding the patient presented in the sample question of # 2 above, what specific  observations would the clinician be making?

a. the person’s appearance

b. how they act

c. how fast they talk

d. a & b

e. all of the above

7. Describe problems with using self­reports for diagnosis.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

  

1. Which of the following are common problems with using self­reports for diagnosis?  a. some patients may falsely report or induce medical or psychological symptoms  to play a “sick” role or get attention 

b. self­reports are usually long and too complicated for some people

c. Some patients don’t know the answers to the questions asked of them and create  an answer

d. a & c only

e. all of the above

8. What are the social factors that a clinician asks about during his/her psychological  assessment of the person?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Delia, a Peace Corp worker, returns from overseas with symptoms such as little  energy, sleeping a lot, little energy, has no appetite, and feels helpless. She also  contracted a parasite that, although it’s being treated, has not resolved itself. These  are all symptoms of depression. Several of those symptoms are also symptoms of  people with the kind of parasite she contracted. Could a clinician diagnose this  patient with depression? (Choose from ‘a’ or ‘b’.)

a. Not if he takes into account this social factor

b. Yes, because the clinician’s concern is psychological factors, not physical  factors

9. What is a mental status exam and what kind of information is gathered?

Mental status exam is a set of questions that assesses a patient’s mental state at the time of the  interview. The clinician asks the patient to describe the problem, its history, and the patient’s  functioning in different areas of life. It also probes the patient’s ability to reason, perform simple  mathematical computations, and to assess possible problems in memory and judgement. The  clinician uses the patient answers to develop hypotheses about possible diagnosis. The exam also assesses cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning broadly. 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1.  In his mental status exam of a Tanya, Dr. McGuillicudy assesses

a. if they know what time it is

b. what Tanya’s relationships are like

c. the relationship of Tanya’s physical health to her mental health

d. if they are able to identify three major holidays

e. her level of self­esteem

10. What are the different categories of tests of psychological functioning? What are some  examples of each of these categories

Many tests are available to assess different areas of psychological functioning. Some assess a  wide range of abilities, such as intelligence and general personality characteristics. Other tests  assess a narrow range of abilities, particular areas of functioning, and symptoms, such as the  ability to remember raw information or the tendency to avoid social gatherings.

­ Cognitive assessment: example is an intelligence test by using Wechsler Adult  Intelligence Scale or Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Both of these tests assess  these types of abilities:

1­ Verbal comprehension: ability to understand verbal functioning 

2­ Perceptual reasoning: ability to reason with nonverbal information

3­ Working memory: ability to maintain and mentally manipulate new information 4­ Processing speed: ability to focus attention and utilize information

­ Personality assessment: Example an Inventory. Used to assess general personality  functioning. It is a questionnaire with items pertaining to many different problems and  aspects of personality. It can also indicate for a clinician what problems and disorders  might be most likely for a given person. The most common inventory is the Minnesota  Multiphasic Personality Inventory and has 2 scales: 1­ Validity scale assesses whether the individual’s responses are likely to be valid of represent accurate self­report. 2­Clinical  scale assesses symptoms of various disorders and problems.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. The Rorschach and the Thematic Apperception tests are examples of a. tests of psychological functioning

b. personality tests

c. tests of cognitive functioning

d. the same type of test as the MMPI

e. a, b, d

11. What is behaviorism? What is Behaviorism? What is its focus? How does it explain  psychological disorder—in other words, how does psychological disorder come to be  according to this perspective?

a. What is the ‘Social Forces’ perspective?

Behaviorism: The approach to psychology that focuses on understanding directly observable  behaviors in order to understand mental illness and other psychological phenomena.  It focuses on understanding directly observable behaviors rather than unobservable mental  processes and mental contents. It proposes scientifically testable mechanisms that may explain  how maladaptive behavior arises. It focuses son behavior and its consequences. Maladaptive  behavior can result from learning from a previous association with an object, situation, or event. 

Social forces: factors that involve more than a single person. There is no unified social  explanation for psychological disorders, but various researchers recognize that social forces  affect the emergence and maintenance of mental health. Those factors include: abuse, trauma,  neglect, poverty…etc. 

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

 

1. A behaviorist who sees someone crying would say

a. their behavior indicates distress

b. that the person is sad 

c. there is risk for impairment

d. that the person is crying

e. all of the above

12. What is Cognitive Psychology? How does Cognitive Psychology connect to  Behaviorism?

Cognitive psychology: the area of psychology that studies mental processes starting from the  analogy of information processes by a computer. It contributed to understanding psychological  disorders by focusing on specific changes in mental processes. 

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

  

1. Denise and Caroline are sitting in a restaurant talking when Denise notices that Caroline is  fixated on something outside. There is a group of kids at a bus stop across the street. There  is also a woman sitting at the bus stop texting on her phone. The boys are laughing and  goofing around. Denise tells Caroline that the boys are harassing the woman. Caroline looks and there is absolutely no evidence of this. A clinician would say that

a. Denise is exhibiting faulty thinking

b. Denise’s perception can be explained by Cognitive Psychology 

c. Caroline is the one with the problem

d. Denise’s anxiety could be explained by classical conditioning

e. a & b

13. What are the different attachment styles we discussed based on Bowlby’s research?  

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

 

1. Jermaine is 10 months old. When his mom walks out of the room, he gets very upset. When  she comes back, he reacts with anger, making yelling noises and even slapping her hands  away when she tries to pick him up. Jermaine is demonstrating 

a. an Avoidant Attachment style

b. a Resistant Anxious Attachment style

c. an Antisocial Attachment style

d. an Insecure Attachment style

e. a Troubled Attachment style

1­ Secure attachment: children become upset when their mother left, but quickly calm down  upon her return.

2­ Resistant/ anxious attachment: children become angry when their mother left and  remained angry upon her return.

3­ Avoidant attachment: children had no change in their emotions based on mother’s  presence of absence.

4­ Disorganized attachment: children exhibited a combination of resistant and avoidant  styles, and also appeared confused and fearful with their mother.  

14. What is the Diathesis Stress Model? How does it work? Come up with an example.

It rests on the claim that a psychological disorder is triggered when a person with a  predisposition (a diathesis) for the particular disorder experiences an environmental event that  causes significant stress. So, if a person has a predisposition to a psychological disorder, stress  may trigger its occurrence. A diathesis may be a biological factor, such as a genetic vulnerability  to a disorder, or it may be a psychological factor, such as a cognitive vulnerability to a disorder,  such as can occur when irrational or inaccurate negative thoughts about oneself contribute to  depression.

Example: According to the diathesis stress model of depression, people who are more vulnerable to depression (high diathesis) will become depressed after experiencing less stress than people  who are less vulnerable to depression (low or absent diathesis). Also given the same level of  stress, those who are more vulnerable to depression will develop more symptoms of depression  than those who are less vulnerable. 

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

 

1. Because of his parents’ history of alcohol abuse, Darrell is predisposed to also developing  this problem.  But he was 30 years old and there were no signs of alcoholism in Darrell.   Sadly, that very year, his fiancée, with whom he had been together for 8 years, broke up 

with him. This devastated Darrell, but he was coping. Then he found out that she had been  SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:

having a relationship with another man. That did it. Darrell began drinking. It didn’t take   

long for Darrell to develop a full­blown substance abuse disorder. How Darrell’s substance  1. Factors that contribute to psychological disorder in the synthesized view in modern science  abuse disorder developed could be explained by      

are

a. Operant Conditioning

a. neurological and social

b. Cognitive­Stress theory

b. psychological and social

c. Behaviorism

c. neurological and psychological

d. the Diathesis­Stress model

d. a & b

e. Bio­Behavioral Genetics

e. all of the above

15. In modern psychology, researchers synthesized (combined) different approaches and  how they interacted to explain disorder. Specifically, we talked about the combo of  ‘biopsychosocial’ and ‘neuropsychosocial’ approaches. Be able to describe the  interaction of the 3 factors that explain disorder and to be able to give an example of  how these 3 factors interact.

Three types of factors: Biological (genetics, structure and function of brain and function of other  bodily systems), social (social interactions and the environment in which they occur), and  psychological (thoughts, feelings, and behaviors). 

Biopsychosocial approach: The view that a psychosocial disorder arises from the combined  influences of three types of factors­ biological, psychological and social. 

Neuropsychological approach: The view that a psychological disorder arises from the combined  influences of neurological, psychological, and social factors­ which affect and are affected by  one another through feedback loops. 

These factors interact though feedback loops: each factor is affected by the others, and also feeds back to affect the other factors. 

PSCH 270 Chapter 2 Study Guide

STUDENT KEY

Understanding Psychological Disorders

Please remember that if you simply follow the slides in answering the questions below, doing study guides will be super easy for you.

1. Know the parts of the neuron and how neurons work together to communicate with each  other. Why do we care about neurons in terms of psychopathology? What if anything do  neurons have to do with psychopathology?

Three types of neurons:

­ Sensory neurons: receive input from sense organs

­ Motor neurons: carry output that stimulates muscles and glands

­ Interneurons: lie between other neurons and make up most of the neurons in the brain.

Many types of psychopathology arise because specific brain circuits are not working properly, either  alone or as a part of the brain system, this is caused when neurons fail to communicate appropriately,  producing incorrect outputs.

Structure:

1­ Cell body: middle part of neuron. It has a nucleus that regulates the function and a cell  membrane which forms an outer covering. When it receives excitatory input, holes in the  membrane called channels open and the neuron’s internal balance of chemicals will change so  that neurons will fire. 

2­ Axon: part of neuron that sends signals when a neuron fires. It is long and covered by a layer of  fatty material known as myelin sheath that insulates it electrically. When a neuron is stimulated it fires a wave of chemicals called action potential. When it reaches the end of the axon, it causes  chemicals to be released. 

3­ Dendrites: Neurons are stimulated through dendrites that receive signals from another neuron.  The dendrites are very branched so a single neuron can receive multiple signals at the same time. Neurons are also stimulated and receive inputs through their cell bodies. Glial cells produce  inputs and are involved in “care and feeding” of neurons and act as a support system.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS

1. Once the signal travels down the axon and reaches the terminals, what happens? a. The electric signal jumps to the next neuron, activating it.

b. The nuclei of the adjacent neurons combine to perform mitosis

c. Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic gap between the neurons d. The dendrites of the receiving neuron receptors that the neurotransmitters from the first neuron “stick” to. 

e. c and d are both correct.

2. During communication between neurons, sometimes neurotransmitters get stuck here.  a. Terminal button

b. Neurotransmitter sac

c. Synapse 

d. At the axon

e. In the nucleus

3. All brain function depends on

a. Cerebral cortex

2. What is the reuptake process?

­ Reuptake: The process of moving leftover neurotransmitter molecules in the synapse back  into the sending neuron.

­ When a neuron fires and sends chemicals to another neuron, not all these molecules bind to  receptors. Special chemicals reuptake the left over neurotransmitters and move them back to  the sending neuron. If this doesn’t operate correctly, then it might contribute to a  psychological disorder. 

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:  

1. During reputake

a. neurotransmitters are taken up by from one neurotransmitter sac to another  b. neurotransmitters lingering in the synapse get taken up by their “home” neuron c. the chemical signal changes directions when traveling down the axon

d. dendrites retract into the cell body (kind of like a turtle retracting its head into its  shell)

e. the receiving neuron takes up the neurons lingering in the synapse

3. What is passive interaction, evocative interaction, and active interaction? 

­ Passive interaction: Parent’s genes affects the child’s environment and the child passively  receives these influences. EX: some parts void large social groups because they are shy, 

which is a result of their genes, this means their children do not have many social  experiences.

­ Evocative interaction (reactive interaction): A person’s inherited traits encourage other  people to behave in particular ways, and hence the person’s social environment will be  affected by his or her genes. EX: if you are very tall and heavy set, others may respond to  you cautiously. 

­ Active interaction: Each of us actively seeks out some environments and avoids others, and  our gens influence which environment feels most comfortable to us. EX: a person who is  sensitive to environmental stimulation might prefer spending a quiet evening at home reading a book than going to a loud and crowd place.

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:  

1. Penelope is very attractive and the spitting image of her equally beautiful mother. “Thank  goodness for mom’s genes,” Penelope tells her complimenting friends. Penelope’s good looks  have a big effect on people around her. Men approach her everywhere she goes. One of her  girlfriends doesn’t even like to invite her out because she knows Penelope will get all the  attention. This example illustrates 

a. provocative interaction

b. evocative interaction 

c. genes affecting the environment

d. b & c

e. all of the above

4. Know the terms unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response. Be able to provide and recognize an example of it.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Elise is allergic to cats. She breaks out in hives any time she is around one. For this reason  she limits her visits to friends’ houses, who do not have cats. A new friend, Jill, though, has  a cat but Elise doesn’t know it. When Elise tells her about her allergy, Jill, who likes Elise  and enjoys her company, figures she’ll just hide little Buffy whenever Elise comes around.   This doesn’t work. Of course, Elise breaks out in hives whenever she goes to Jill’s house. It  has gotten to the point that Elise has started to break into hives right at Jill’s front door and  she, in turn, starts banging on the door in utter frustration. In this scenario 

the (1)_____________________ is the unconditioned stimulus; the (2) 

___________________ is the unconditioned response; the (3)_____________ is the  conditioned stimulus.

a. (1) cats  (2) hives (3) Jill’s front door 

b. (1) Jill’s front door (2) banging on the door (3) cats

c. (1) Jill’s front door (2) banging on the door (3) cats

d. (1) cats (2) banging on the door (3) Jill’s front door

e. (1) cats (2) hives (3) the front door

­ Unconditioned stimuli: A stimuli that reflexively elicits a behavior. EX: in little albert’s 

experiment it was the loud noise. It elicits the behavior without prior conditioning. ­ Unconditioned response: A behavior that is reflexively elicited by a stimulus. EX: fear. ­ Conditioned stimulus: Neutral stimulus that when paired with an unconditioned stimulus, 

comes to elicit a reflexive behavior.  Its ability to elicit the response is conditional on it being paired with UCS. EX: white rat.

­ Conditioned response: A response that comes to be elicited by the previously neutral  stimulus that has become a conditioned stimulus. EX: startle response to the rat alone.

5. What is operant conditioning and how does it work? What is learned helplessness and  under which circumstances could it occur?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION

1. The example we discussed in class, where a person with OCD washes his hands 20 times and  then feels relief from anxiety as a result illustrates which operant conditioning principle? a. Negative reinforcement

b. Positive reinforcement

c. Negative punishment

d. Positive punishment

e. a & c

­ Operant conditioning: A type of learning in which the likelihood that a behavior will be  repeated depends on the consequences associated with the behavior. It involves voluntary  behaviors, whereas classical conditioning involves reflex behaviors. With operant condition,  when the behavior is followed by a positive consequence, it is more likely to be repeated. 

­ Learned helplessness: The state of “giving up” that arises when an animal is in an aversive  situation where it seems that no action can be effective. 

6. What is observational learning? 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION

1. Jeremy’s dad hits Jeremy’s mom and verbally abuses her. This is terrifying for Jeremy. When  it happens, he brings his little sister in his room and the two of them hide in the closet and  cover their ears until the beating is over. One day when she is scolding Jeremy for swearing  Jeremy strikes out and slaps her. Over his mom’s shoulder, Jeremy notices his dad giving him the thumbs up. In the meantime, to Jeremy’s surprise, his mom hugs and cries, reassuring him that she loves him. This case illustrates

a. observational learning

b. positive reinforcement

c. classical conditioning

d. positive punishment

e. a & b

­ Observational learning: The process of learning through watching what happens to others.  (Modeling). From our observation we develop a guide for our own behaviors as well as  expectations about what is likely to occur when we behave the same way.

7. Know what Emotions, Mental Processes, & Mental Contents are and how they interrelate. 

­ Emotions: a short­lived experience evoked by a stimulus that produces a mental response, a  typical behavior, and a positive or negative subjective feeling. They affect behavior and  mental processes and mental contents. When people are down, they are more likely to see the word in a depressed lens. 

­ This can also work in a opposite direction and mental processes can affect emotions. EX:  emotions are affected by attributions, Meaning we all try to understand the events in our lives and make attributions  or assign causes for particular occurrences. 

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:  

1. Kirk did not get the job he so wanted. Although he was assured he was a strong competitor— in fact he was their second choice!—and that they simply chose someone with more years of  experience, Kirk was convinced that he didn’t get the job because he is incompetent. He  couldn’t get over it. Before long, he fell into a depression. What explains the origins  (etiology) of Kirk’s depression?

a. There was a relationship between Kirk’s mental contents and his emotions  b. Kirk made a global, stable attribution about not getting the job

c. Kirk’s mental processes affected his emotions

d. a & b (NOTE: see illustration below)

e. All of the above

Emotions

Mental Processes

Mental Contents

(e.g., attributions: assigning causes  

for particular occurrences, e.g.

8. Identify two of the problems that could arise as a result of a person having difficulty  managing their emotions. Give an example of each. 

­ Excess of mood, such as in depression (prolonged sadness), o mania (prolonged  inappropriate euphoria) are part of mood disorders.

­ Some dissociative disorders, which involve a separation of normally integrated mental  processes, include the absence of the normal emotional experience. 

­ Psychological disorders may arise from difficulty in regulating emotions, such as inability to  dampen down anxiety when it is intense or inappropriate. 

­ This can lead to: 

1) Externalizing problems: too little control of emotions and related behaviors such as  aggression. Their primary effects are on others and on the environment. 

2) Internalizing problems: negative internal experiences, such as anxiety. Their primary  effect is on the individuals themselves not on others.

3) Other problems, such as emotional and behavioral problems

SAMPLE EXAMPLE QUESTIONS:  

1. Davis has just gone through a break up with his partner. He misses him desperately and is  having trouble managing his emotions. Which of the following is NOT a correctly matched  example of a problem that could reasonably develop as a result of this problem with emotion  management?

a. Davis may punch through a wall, externalization 

b. Davis may abuse his dog, internalization

c. Davis may begin to harm himself, internalization

d. Davis may develop depression or anxiety, internalization

e. Davis may pick a fight with his best friend, externalization

9. Know the defining characteristics of collectivistic vs. individualistic cultures and how these  could put someone at risk for disorder or protect them from disorder.

­ Collective: place a high value on getting along with others, in such cultures, the goal of the  group (family or community) take precedence over those of the individual.

­ Individualist: value independence and autonomy. The gal of the individual precedence over  the goals of the group. 

­ Th problem suppression facilitation model addresses how culture can influence mental health and mental illness. Cultural factors, such as values, norms…etc can affect child’s behavior. If a child tends to be active for example, cultures such as China value the ability to sit still for  long periods, thus seek to minimize such behavioral tendency. 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS: 

1. Which of the following is true of collectivistic cultures?

a. Dependence is promoted

b. They are concerned with group harmony

c. African culture is the most of collectivistic cultures

d. Modesty is valued

e. All of the above are

2. Explain how culture (individualism vs. collectivism) can put one at more or less risk for  disorder.

10. Be able to identify social factors that contribute to psychological disorders.  ­ Discrimination

­ bullying

­ War

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION

1. Which of the following illustrates a social factor that could contribute psychological  disorder?

a. When children believe their parents are highly critical

b. When parents mistreat their child

c. When children believe that they deserve a parent’s mistreatment

d. When parents believe children are highly critical of them

e. b & c

11.What is social causation and what is social drift? What is their potential relationship to  psychological disorder?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Daniel had a great job, was happily married, and had two beautiful children. He began to show  symptoms of mental illness, for example, hearing voices. He began to miss work, until he lost  his job. He would stay away from home and no one knew where he was. His family would find  him wandering the streets, dressed poorly and unshaven. With the family’s income gone, they  lost their house and Daniel’s family went to live with his wife’s family. On his own now and  with no job or income, Daniel became homeless. What does this story illustrate? a. Social drift

b. Social selection

c. Social causation

d. a & b

e. b & c

­ Social causation: The hypothesis that the daily stressor of urban life, especially as  experienced by people in a lower socioeconomic level, trigger mental illness in those who are vulnerable. Socioeconomic disadvantages cause psychological disorders.

­ Social drift: also known as social selection. The hypothesis that those who are mentally ill  drift to a lower socioeconomic level because of their impairments. Low SES both contribute  to the disorder and are a cause of the disorder

12.Understand the reasoning behind why twin and adoption studies are done. What types of  questions are we trying to answer about psychological disorders by using these methods?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION

1. There is a new psychological disorder on the rise, wherein individuals believe that they are blue, and thus will not go out in public. Researchers notice that many sets of siblings have been developing the disorder, and would like to determine if there is a genetic component to the disorder. What would be the researchers’ best course of action to study this?

a. A study of monozygotic (identical) twins raised in the same household

b. A study of dizygotic (fraternal—non­identical) twins raised in the same  household

c. A study of monozygotic (identical) twins raised separately

d. A study of dizygotic (fraternal—non­identical) twins raised apart

e. A study of biological, non­twin siblings living in the same household

­ Twin studies compare some characteristics in two groups of twins, identical and fraternal.  Identical twins have the same genetic makeup. But even identical twins do not have absolute  identical set of genes, they might differ in how particular genes are repeated.

­ Fraternal twins began life in different eggs (zygotic) and are like any nonidentical siblings. ­ When researchers compare these 2 kinds of twins, while controlling some environmental  factors, they can make conclusions about relative contributions of genes to those  characteristics in the environment. 

­ Adoption studies are also done to discover the role of genes and the environment. But it is  still not easy to disentangle the effects of genes and the environment. Because genetic  differences influence the environment (reciprocal gene environment model). 

PSCH 270 Mood Disorders and Suicide Chapter 5 Study Guide STUDENT KEY for MULTIPLE CHOICE SAMPLE QUESTIONS ONLY

Please remember that if you simply follow the slides in answering the questions below,  doing study guides will be super easy for you.

1. Be able to distinguish between a Major Depressive Episode and a Major Depressive  Disorder. Can you have an MDE without an MDD or an MDD without an MDE? Be able to explain this. If you are not clear on this, ask in class before the exam. 

Major Depressive Episode (MDE): A major episode characterized by severe depression that lasts for at least 2 weeks. It is characterized by severe depression that lasts for at least 2 weeks. People suffer loss of pleasure (anhedonia) that can lead to social withdrawal and not being able to enjoy  activities, hopelessness. Make less eye contact and more negative comments. 

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): The mood disorder marked by five or more symptoms of an  MDE lasting for more than 2 weeks. Recurrent depression episodes..

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. If you have an MDD, you 

a. also definitely are having a Major Depressive Episode

b. don’t have Major Depressive Episode

c. could have Major Depressive Episode or not—it depends 

d. have ‘double depression’

e. have ‘double depression’ with specifiers

2. Be able to name the ABCs that are affected in a Major Depressive Episode. Also, be  able to recognize at least one symptom associated with each letter according to what  we discussed in class.

A) Five or more of the following symptoms that have been present during the same 2­week  period and represent a change from normal functioning. At least one of the symptoms is  (1­ depressed mood, 2­ loss of interest or pleasure.)

3­ significant weight loss or weight gain

4­ insomnia or hypersomnia nearly everyday 

5­ psychomotor agitation or retardation

6­ Fatigue or loss of energy nearly everyday 

7­ feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt

8­ Can’t think or concentrate 

9­ Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation

B) The symptoms don’t meet criteria for a mixed episode 

C) The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in areas of functioning D) The symptoms are not due to physiological effects of a substance 

E) The symptoms are not better accounted for by bereavement (loss of loved one)  Symptoms persist longer than 2 months 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Pacing and not being able to sit still are examples of which of the letters in the ABCs of a  Major Depressive Episode

a. B (for behavior)

b. F

c. C 

d. S

e. A

1.

3. What is Persistent Depressive Disorder? Be able to distinguish it from Major  Depressive Disorder. What do they have in common, and how do they differ? 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD)

a. goes on for at least two years

b. and Chronic Depression are the same thing except there is no break from the  symptoms like there is for PDD

c. includes the symptoms that meet the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode  d. a & c

e. b & c

4. In class we discussed that depressive disorders can be explained by neurological,  psychological and social factors and from the interaction of these factors in the form of feedback loops between the factors. 

a. What are the three neurological factors that can explain psychological disorders? Which are the only two you are responsible for? 

Neurological factors are classified into 3 categories: brain systems, neural communication, and  genetics (stress­related hormones)

­ Brain systems: depressed people have low activity in the frontal lobe that has direct  connections to the amygdala (involved in fear and other emotions). Thus, the depressed  brain is not able to normally regulate emotion. This part of the frontal lobe is connected  to brain areas that produce the neurotransmitter substances dopamine, serotonin,  norepinephrine, so it is important in regulating these substances. These substances are  involved in reward and emotion, so brains of people on depression does not regulate  these substances normally.  

Lack of motivation is related to reduced activity in the frontal lobe. Depression is related  to greater activity in the emotion related limbic system. Brains areas involved in attention (thalamus), controlling movements (basal ganglia) are over active in depressed people. 

­ Neural communication: Symptoms of depression are relieved by using medications that  alter the activity of serotonin and norepinephrine. But depression is not caused but too  much or too little of these neurotransmitters, Depression arises from a complex  interaction between among neurotransmitters, which depend on how the much and how  these substances interact with the receptor.

­ Stress­related hormones: According to stress diathesis model, people with depression  have an excess of cortisol in their blood (stress hormone), making their brain more prone  to overreacting when they experience stress. This stress alerts the serotonin and  norepinephrine systems, which underlies some depression symptoms. 

­ Genetics: Twin studies show that when one twin of monozygotic (identical) pair has  MDD, then the other twin has a risk of also developing the disorder four times higher  than when the twins are dizygotic. If a person is sensitive to stressful evets, then that  causes an increase in HPA axis activation which contributes to depression.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. The subfactors within the neurological factor that are said to contribute to depression  include

a. brain systems

b. stress neurons

c. inherited vulnerability for disorder

d. a & b

e. a & c

2.  With regard to the neural communication factor, the potential for depression is influenced  by

a. the amount that each neurotransmitter is released into the neuron

b. the amount of time the neurotransmitter spends in the terminal button sac c. excess androgen hormones

d. a & c

e. you didn’t need to know this

b. What are the psychological factors that are said to contribute to 

depression?  Know what each of these is.

­ Attentional Biases: Some people consciously or unconsciously focus their attention on  sad stimuli. Depressed people are more likely to pay attention. People who are depressed  are more likely to pay attention to sad faces. This attention bias is also found negative  words, and remembering depression related vs neutral stimuli. This makes depressed  people more sensitive to other people’s sad moods. 

­ Dysfunctional thoughts: cognitive distortions are the root cause of many disorders.  People with depression tend to only have negative thoughts about the world and the self  and the future. This is known as negative triad of depression. 

­ Rumination: Reflection of emotions. Stress­reactive ruminations is ruminating about  implications of stressful life events. It is assessed by asking participants to agree or  disagree with statements about what they generally do when they’re feeling down?

­ Attribution style: People who attribute negative events to their own qualities (internal  attributional style) are more likely to become depressed.  

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Research has shown that, when shown pictures of faces with different expressions,  depressed individual tend to focus more on the sad faces. This research serves as evidence of 

a. depression

b. dysfunctional thinking

c. maladaptive rumination

d. attentional distortion

e. attentional bias

2. Marquez lost his job as a financial analyst. He concludes that the reason he lost the job is  because he is incompetent. Marquez is exhibiting

a. a depressive symptom

b. an internal attributional style

c. an external attributional style

d. a & b

e. a & c

5. What is hopelessness depression? 

­ It is not always based on incorrect attributions. It can arise from situations in which  undesirable outcomes do occur and the individual is helpless to change. EX: children who experience abuse. These circumstances lead to learned helplessness in which a person  gives up trying to change or escape.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. People who have a tendency to make global, stable statements or think like that are good  candidates for 

a. developing hopelessness depression

b. developing Persistent Depressive Disorder

c. developing Chronic Depression

d. feeling like they can’t change their situation

e. a & d

6. Be able to define “comorbidity,’ ‘prodromal,’ and ‘premorbid?’

­ Comorbidity: The presence of more than one disorder at the same time in a given patient. ­ Prodromal: The phase that precedes the onset of a psychological disorder, such as  schizophrenia, when symptoms do not yet meet all the criteria for the disorder ­ Premorbid: period of time before the patient’s illness 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1.  Research shows that depression and anxiety tend to 

a. be comorbid with eachother

b. both involve anhedonia

c. occur premorbidly

d. occur prodromally

e. cycle rhythmically

7. What is Disruptive Mood Dysregulation?

­

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. In class we discussed how one of the potential problems with a diagnosis like  Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder is 

a. the potential risk for over­diagnosing children with it who don’t really  have it but are just kind of difficult

b. the potential risk for over­diagnosing adults with it who don’t really have it but more likely have a personality disorder

c. that it is easily confused with bipolar disorder

d. that it can the symptoms tend overlap with the side effects for a number of  different medications 

e. none of the above

8. What category for explaining depressive disorders does genetic factors fall under?

­ Neurological factors

9. How does genetic influence work? Do genes affect the environment or does the  environment affect genes? Or both? 

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Janelle’s mother wanted so much to be a singer when she was growing up. She was  not successful at it, however. She saw Janelle as a vehicle for realizing her own  unfulfilled dreams. So when Janelle was little, she signed her up for choir and singing  lessons and activities like that. Janelle really got off to a rough start, but with  consistent practice she got really good—like star­quality good. Others noticed it too.  She was even recruited for a talent scout and eventually found her way to American  Idol. From a genetic standpoint, one way to look at Janelle’s success is that 

a. she would have been a gifted singer regardless of how much she practiced  b. practice makes perfect

c. the constant exercise of her voice ‘activated’ a gene she had within her  that might otherwise have remained ‘asleep’ had she not stimulated it  with all her singing

2. Stacey led a perfectly mentally healthy life. She lived in tornado alley, the stretch of  the country that gets a lot of tornado activity. The small town in which she lived was  hit by an F5 tornado, the most powerful kind. The town was nearly leveled. Most  people lost their homes. Fortunately, Stacey did not, but she witnessed a lot of  suffering and destruction. Despite the good fortune of not experiencing any significant loss and actually coming out way ahead of her unfortunate neighbors, Stacey fell into  a terrible and debilitating depression that wound up hospitalizing her. This could serve as an example

a. of the environment (the tornado event) influencing a depressive gene that  Stacey already carried in her

b. an already­existing depressive gene influencing Stacey to pick such a risky  place to live in the first place, which in turn enhanced her likelihood of 

becoming depressed

c. of stress compromising (getting in the way of) Stacey’s coping abilities  d. of genetically­based stress compromising Stacey’s coping abilities

e. of post traumatic stress dysfunction

­ Genes influence how a person responds to stressful events. But the environment also  plays a role in determining whether a person will develop depression or not. Even with  identical twins, if one is depressed, it doesn’t mean the other will get depressed, even if  they share the same genes. Depression depends mostly on the person’s life experience 

10. What are the treatment approaches for depression that focus on psychological  factors?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. In this treatment approach focusing on psychological factors, depressed patients are  taught to change how they think and then as a result, how they behave 

a. Cognitive behavioral therapy

b. Cognitive therapy

c. Interpersonal therapy

d. Brain Stimulation via Electro­Convulsive Therapy

e. Motivational Stimulation

­ Behavioral methods: focuses on identifying depressive behaviors and then changing  them. Changing negative behaviors can increase the opportunity to receive positive  reinforcement. EX: behavioral activation that includes self­monitoring, scheduling daily  activities…etc 

­ Cognitive methods: Aims to change or diminish negative thoughts that lead to negative  feelings, which are often distortions of reality. Patients are encouraged to conduct their  own experiments to collect data and asses their own beliefs, which are unnatural and  untrue.

­ Cognitive behavior therapy

11. What is Beck’s negative triad of depression?

­ Negative triad of depression: people with depression have negative views about the  world, the self, and the future. They can cause and maintain chronically depressed  feelings and depression related beaviors.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1.  In his negative triad of depression, Beck said that people with depression tend to  a. see the world in a very negative way 

b. have dysfunctional thinking

c. have overly negative views of themselves and the future

d. have an exaggerated sense of their suffering (“poor, poor me”)

e. a, b, & c

NOTE: this is the figure that shows the neurological, psychological, and social factors that  explain depression; I have crossed out what we did not cover and thus, what you are not  responsible for. Please note that you are responsible for “Brain Systems” under  neurological but not for the list below it that I crossed out. Also, note that you do not have  to understand “stress­diathesis” at this point (what is between the arrows that go between  the rectangular boxes). You only need to know that the three factors—neurological,  psychological, and social—all interact in explaining disorder, and in this case, depression  specifically.

PSCH 270 Chapter 6 Study Guide

STUDENT KEY

Anxiety Disorders

Please remember that if you simply follow the slides in answering the questions below,  doing study guides will be super easy for you.

1. What is the fight-or-flight response? What’s its purpose? How  does it work?

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Among the organs that go through changes as a result of the fight­or­flight  response (check all that apply)

a. lungs

b. thorax

c. arms

d. heart

e. gall bladder

- Fight or flight (stress response): automatic neurological and bodily  response to a perceived threat.  

- The stress response prepares your body to exert physical energy from  an action to fight the threat or run away from it.  

- Your body responds by increasing your heart rate and breathing rate to provide more oxygen to the muscle and brain

- Increase in sweat on the palms to help you grip better

- Pupils dilate to let in more light and see better

2. What happens when the fight-or-flight response “goes awry”  (goes wrong)? What are possible outcomes of this?

- When their arousal gets out of control, they may start to feel panic, an  extreme sense of fear of imminent doom, together with an extreme  sense of response. Some people who become panicked develop a  phobia, an exaggerated fear of an object or a situation, together with  an extreme avoidance of the object of situation. This avoidance can  interfere with everyday life.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:

1. Among the potential outcomes from a fight-or-flight system  that goes haywire is:

a. Indigestion

b. Phobia

c. Panic disorder

d. b & c

e. All of the above

3. Ex pl

ai

n

the Tripartite (3-part) Model of Anxiety and Depression. Be  familiar with the figure.

There are 3 parts of the model:

- High level of negative emotions which include general distress. Both  anxiety and depressive disorders can involve poor concentration, sleep disturbances, irritability, and anxious apprehension. Factors shared  both by anxiety and depression

- Low levels of positive emotions: symptoms of depression including lack of enjoyment and slowed motor functions. Low positive affect is a  symptom of depression but not anxiety

- Physiological hyperarousal: Over arousal: found in anxiety but not  depression

1. According to the Tripartitie model of anxiety and depression, among the  symptoms that the two disorders share is: CHAPTER 6

a. A high level of negative emotions

b. Physiological hyperarousal

c. Lack of enjoyment

d. High level of cortisol

e. High levels of dopamine

4. W ha

t  

are some of the characteristics of a social phobia (in other words  what does it look like)?

- Anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear of public humiliation or  embarrassment, together with the avoidance of social situations likely  to cause this fear, also known as social anxiety disorder

DSM-5:

- Persistent fear of one or more social performance situations in which  the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny  - Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes  anxiety

- The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable - The feared social situations are avoided

- The avoidance, anxious anticipation, or distress in the feared social or  performance situation interferes significantly with the person’s normal  routine

- In individuals under the age of 18, the duration is at least 6 months  - The fear of avoidance is not due to direct physiological effects of a  substance

- If a general medical condition or another mental disorder is present,  the fear in criterion A is unrelated to it

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Which of these behaviors is characteristic of Social Anxiety Disorder:

a. Loss of interest in things you used to enjoy

b. Impulsivity

c. Fear of avoidance of situations where you may be evaluated by others

d. Sudden and unpredictable panic attacks

5. What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder? What does it look like?

- Anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable worry and anxiety  about many events or activities that are not solely the focus of another Axis disorder.

DMS-5:

- Excessive anxiety or worry occurring for many days for at least 6  months

- The person finds it difficult to control the worry

- The anxiety and worry are associated with 3 or more of these  symptoms:

a) Restlessness

b) Being easily fatigued

c) Difficulty concentrating

d) Irritability

e) Muscle tension

f) Sleep disturbance

- The focus of the anxiety is confined to features of an Axis 1 disorder  - The anxiety, worry or physical symptoms cause clinically significant  distress or impairment  

- The disturbance is not due to the direct physiological effects of a  substance

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Jon has been experiencing excessive worry about his  financial situation, the well-being of his children, and work  projects continuously for the past 6 months. Because of that,  he has difficulties concentrating and sleeping well. If Jon has  a disorder, which of the following is the most likely one? a. Panic Disorder

b. Phobia

c. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

d. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

e. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

6. What psychological disorder is highly comorbid with GAD?

- People with GAD pay a lot of attention to stimuli in their environment,  searching for possible threats (hypervigilance)

- People typically feel that their worries are out of control and that they  can’t stop or alter the pattern of their thoughts

- The mere act of worrying prevents anxiety from becoming panic, thus  the act of worrying is negatively reinforced

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder has been found to occur most  comorbidly with

a. Depression

b. Substance abuse

c. Bipolar disorder

d. A & b

e. All of the above

What is a panic attack? What does it look like?  

- A specific period of intense dread, fear, or a sense of imminent doom,  accompanied by physical symptoms of a pounding heart, shortness of  breath, shakiness and sweating.  

DSM-5:

- Palpitations, pounding heart

- Sweating

- Trembling or shaking  

- Shortness of breath

- Choking

- Nausea

- Feeling dizzy

- Fear of losing control or going crazy

- Chills or hot flushes  

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. As a child Mallory had a pet rabbit, which she never quite  warmed up to, despite her excited dad’s attempts to involve her actively with the pet. On the Easter of her 5th birthday, her  father was particularly pushy, hiding the biggest egg with candy in the rabbit’s cage (kinda unsanitary, dontcha think?). Terrified, Mallory reached into the cage for that egg and just as she  feared, the rabbit bit her. Mallory absolutely flipped out  (wouldn’t you???!!!). The bite required a hospital trip, stitches,  and was a huge medical drama for the family. Now, any small  furry creature (cat, squirrel, hamster) prompts Mallory to have a  panic attack. Mallory’s panic attack would be described as a. An uncued attack

b. A cued attack

c. Both a diurnal and nocturnal panic attack

d. Comorbid with depression

e. Panic distortion

are panic attack and panic disorder related?

- Panic disorder: the anxiety disorder characterized by frequent,  unexpected panic attacks along with fear of further attacks and  possible restrictions of behavior in order to prevent such attacks.

7. H o

w

- Panic attacks are distinguished from panic disorder by the frequency  and unpredictability of the attacks and the individua’s reaction to the  attack.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. A panic attack

a. Is the same as panic disorder

b. Occurs only in direct response to a traumatic event

c. Is a key ingredient of panic disorder

d. Is a key ingredient of PTSD

e. Disrupts communication between neurons fired by the  hippocampus to the amygdala

8. Throughout the term we have talked about 3 factors that are  always looked at in understanding disorders and in treating  them. To maximize your chances of the best possible  improvement, which of the 3 factors would you want your  treatment to focus on if you suffered from a social phobia?  - CBT (exposure and cognitive restructuring): Less likely to have a  

relapse. It changes the way the patient thinks and behaves in social  situations (psychological factors). Viewing these situations more  realistically and with less anxiety means that the patient does not get  physically aroused (neurological factor)

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. What is the treatment approach for social phobia according to  how the neurological perspective understands social phobia?  a. medication

b. cognitive restructuring

c. cognitive restructuring in a group therapy context

d. shrinking the size of the amygdala

e. a & b

9. What is agoraphobia? What are its characteristics?

- Agoraphobia: the persistent avoidance of situations that might trigger  panic symptoms or from which escape would be difficult

DMS-5:

- Anxiety about being in places or situations from escape might be  difficult  

- The situations are avoided

- The anxiety or phobic avoidance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTIONS:

1. Jeanie had a terrible car accident some years ago. Since then  she is petrified of situations that involve vehicles, including  driving, being a passenger in vehicles. In fact, not only does she fear them, she goes to great lengths to avoid being anywhere  around vehicles, which is pretty impossible in a big city like  Chicago. Eventually, Jeanie rarely left the house. Jeanie suffers  from  

a. an anxiety disorder

b. a phobia

c. agoraphobia

d. a vehicular disorder

e. a, b, and c  

2. Juana cannot bear injections of any kind. Needles freak her out.  On the single occasion that she allowed blood to be drawn from  her, she screamed, cried, and hollered until she passed out.  Wow! Juana has

a. a panic disorder

b. a specific phobia

c. depression

d. a situational type of phobia

e. none of the above

12. What is the goal when treating Generalized Anxiety Disorder and targeting psychological factors in doing so? What do behavioral  methods focus on? What do cognitive methods focus on?

- Behavioral methods: focus on: awareness and control of breathing,  awareness and control of muscle tension and relaxation, elimination,  reduction or prevention of behaviors associated with worry

- Cognitive methods: helping the patient identify the thought patterns  that are associated with heir worries and anxieties and then helping  use cognitive restructuring and other methods to prevent these  thoughts.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Psychological methods to treat generalized anxiety disorder aim to:

a. Increase sense of control over thoughts and worries

b. More accurate view of likelihood and dangerousness of  perceived threats

c. Decrease muscle tension

d. A & b

e. All of the above

2. Behavioral treatment methods focus on  

a. Negatively reinforcing appropriate behavior

b. Punishing anxious behavior through positive or negative  punishment

c. Breathing retraining

d. Retraining thoughts

e. Restructuring reinforcements

13. What are the 3 types of exposure approaches that we discussed  for the psychologically-focused treatment of panic disorder and  agoraphobia?

- Imaginal exposure: exposure to mental images of the fear-inducing  stimuli, progressing from least to most anxiety-inducing situations - In vivo exposure: behavioral therapy method that consists of direct  exposure to a feared or avoided situation or stimulus

- Interoceptive exposure: behavioral therapy method in which patients  intentionally elicit the bodily sensations associated with panic so that  they can habituate to those sensations and not respond to fear

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Jeanie (from question 10 above) has been receiving treatment  for her agoraphobia involving bringing her gradually and  progressively closer to the feared stimulus of automobiles. They  started with Jeanie looking at cars through the window of her  therapist’s high-rise office. Right now she has gotten as far as  being able to stand at a distance from a parked car. Their  ultimate goal is for Jeanie to be able to drive a car. What  approach is Jeanie’s therapist using?

a. In vivo exposure

b. Graded exposure

c. Imaginary exposure

d. Interoceptive exposure

e. a & b

14. What is social anxiety disorder?

- Social phobia: anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear of public  humiliation or embarrassment, together with the avoidance of social  situations likely to cause this fear.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

2. What is social anxiety disorder?

a. Social phobia

b. Dread of being evaluated

c. Sensitivity to criticism or rejection

d. b & c

e. All of the above

15. What are examples of neurologically-, psychologically-, and  socially-oriented treatments for social anxiety disorder?

- Neurological (medication): we use beta blockers. It binds to some of  the brain’s receptor of epinephrine and norepinephrine and makes the  receptors less sensitive. For people whose social anxiety arises in wider and more frequent set or circumstances, we treat them with SSRI.

- Psychological (exposure and cognitive restructuring): it alleviates the  symptoms and helps individuals identify irrational thoughts about  social situation, develop more realistic thoughts and expectations.

- Social (group interactions): cognitive behavioral group therapy uses  exposure and cognitive restructuring. It allows the patient to try out  their new skills.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

 1. How does CBT work to treat social anxiety disorder? a. Identify irrational thoughts about social situations

b. Develop more realistic thoughts and expectations about  social situations

c. Test prediction about the consequences of engaging in  specific behaviors

d. a & b

e. all of the above

2. An example of psychologically- and socially-oriented treatments  for social anxiety disorder is

a. Exposure

b. Cognitive restructuring

c. CBT

d. Habituation

e. All of the above

16. With respect to specific phobias, what are preparedness and  contrapreparedness?

- Preparedness having certain readiness for certain stimuli to produce  certain conditioned response. So, less learning from experience is  

needed to produce the conditioning

- Contrapreparedness: People can have a natural disinclination to allow  some particular conditioned stimuli to elicit certain conditioned  

response.

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Although many individuals may develop a fear of heights  over their lifetimes, it is rather impossible to develop a phobia of innocuous objects such as chairs. This is due to a phenomenon  of:

a. Contrapreparedness

b. Selective preservation

c. Perceptual distortion

d. Stimulus discrimination

e. Reactive dissonance

17. What is separation anxiety and how is it treated?

- Separation anxiety: a psychological disorder that typically arises in  childhood and is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation  from home o form someone to whom the individual has become  

attached.

- Treatment may involve CBT with exposure and cognitive restructuring.  Family therapy where therapist identifies family patterns that maintain  the disorder and helps parents change their interaction patterns to  encourage and reinforce their child for engaging in appropriate  

separation behaviors

SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION:  

1. Dante does not like to be away from his mother. He has been like this since he started kindergarten 2 years ago. His parents  are up in arms and don’t know what to do. If you were advising  them as to the best course of treatment, what would you  recommend?

a. Family therapy

b. exposure

c. cognitive restructuring

d. CBT

e. All of the above

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