Exam 2 Chp. 3, 4, 5
1. Describe the “postindustrial economy”
a. It is the transition to tertiary and quaternary employment sectors
2. What economic activities are in each of the sectors of the ‘sectoral transformation’? a. Primary: mining, agriculture, fishing
b. Secondary: manufacturing
c. Tertiary: retail, services
d. Quaternary: infobased; education, communication
e. Quincy: research, new technology
3. Briefly describe North America’s diverse physical landscape:
a. Boreal forest: cooler continental interior
b. Prairie: high latitudinal
c. Tundra: drier continental climates
4. What is a megalopolis? Give 2 examples. What are canada's 2 largest cities? a. It is a large urban region formed as cities grow and merge with each other b. Canada largest cities
i. #1 Toronto, Ontario
ii. #2 Montreal, Quebec
5. Explain how acid rain occurs. What are 3 other issues of environmental concern? a. Caused by industrial and auto emissions and goes up to the atmosphere and combines with precipitation (rain)
b. 3 others
i. Soil erosion, air, water pollution
6. Briefly explain the statement “North America is a region of immigrants”. What immigrant groups initially settled in Canada? In the US?
If you want to learn more check out What does the futurism movement celebrate?
a. Anywhere you go around the US, there are more immigrants than native peoples in the area and everyone is from surrounding countries that immigrated to the US i. Melted pot of peoples
i. Phase 1: english and african
ii. Phase 2: northwest european (irish and germans)
iii. Phase 3: southern and eastern europeans
iv. Phase 4: neighboring places (canada and latin america)
v. Phase 5: latin america and asia
7. Describe a ‘cultural homeland”. Give an example for canada and for the US a. A culturally distinctive settlement in a well defined geographic area, whose ethnicity has survived over time, stamping the landscape with an enduring personality We also discuss several other topics like What are 3 types of brain scans?
i. French Canadian Quebec
i. Hispanics in California
8. Describe the (5) dominant migration flows in the US. Which has been the most persistent trend?
a. Stage 1 (18001820): english were settling and bringing african slaves with them b. Stage 2 (18201870): irish had a potato famine // germans had religious and political freedom
c. Stage 3 (18701920): southern and eastern europeans had world war 1 political issues wanted land (manifest destiny)
d. Stage 4 (19201970): world war 2 hit
e. Stage 5 (19702010): latin america and asia are escaping political and economics needed freedom
f. Persistent trend: phase 5
9. Describe the practice of sustainable agriculture. Why is it important?
a. A system of agriculture where organic farming principles, a limited use of chemicals, and an integrated plan of crop and livestock management combine to offer both producers and consumers environmentally friendly alternatives
b. Important: healthier for the environment and less upkeep for humans to get on track
10. Both the us and canada are __________ states (in terms of the political framework) a. Federal states We also discuss several other topics like How did beethoven change the symphony?
11. What has been the major force that shaped the evolution of the cities in the us and led to urban decentralization? Describe the process of gentrification
a. Historical evolution of US cities forming of the interstate hwy
b. The process by which wealthier (middle income) people move into, renovate, and restore housing and sometimes businesses in inner cities or other deteriorated areas formerly home to poorer people
12. What is NAFTA? What countries are the participants?
b. US, canada, mexico
13. What does North America possess that has allowed it to become the world’s most powerful economy and the wealthiest population?
a. Quantity of the manufactured goods and services
14. During which period did the largest number of immigrants to the United States come from Southern and Eastern Europe?
a. 18701920 (stage 3)
1. Latin America was colonized by which 2 european countries? What were they seeking? a. Spanish and portuguese
2. What are the top oil producing countries?
a. México, venezuela
3. What are the 3 major river basins in latin america? Which lies in the tropical rainforest? a. The amazon, plata, orinoco
b. Amazon river
4. What are remittances? Which country in latin america receives the most remittances? a. Money from immigrants working abroad is a major source of capital for religion b. Most remittances: Mexico We also discuss several other topics like What is dynein?
i. El salvador and honduras go to the domestic economy
5. Briefly describe the different zones in the altitudinal zonation model a. Tierra caliente (sea level3,000): sugarcane, tropical fruits, lowland tubers, maize, rice, poultry, pigs, cattle
b. Tierra templada (3,0006,000): coffee, maize, warm weather vegetables, cut flowers, short horn cattle
c. Tierra fria (6,00012,000): wheat, barley, maize, tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca, vicuna
d. Tierra helada (12,00015,000): highland grains and tubers, sheep, guinea pigs, llama, alpaca, vicuna
e. Snowline (15,000snowline)
6. What does ‘urban primacy’ mean? What are the 3 largest cities in latin america? a. One city is 3 or 4 times bigger than others
b. 3 largest cities: buenos aires, argentina // mexico city, mexico // san paulo, brazil 7. Why is the destruction of the tropical rain forest such a critical issue? a. Agricultural frontier invading amazon basin
b. Converting forest into pasture
c. Grassification: in guatemala peten region, southern mexico and brazilian amazon d. Tropical forest settlement in the amazon
8. What are the major urban environmental challenges? Which city is considered the “green city” in brazil?
a. Air pollution, water, working towards sustainable cities, thermal inversion b. Curitiba
9. What problems might result from the El Nino?
a. Floods and droughts
10. Compare the latifundia with the minifundia
a. Latifundia: large estates, often absentee landowners
b. Minifundia: small land plots farmed for substance
11. What minerals provide the wealth for countries in the Andes Mountains? a. Lithium and copper
12. In the latin american city model, where do the poor live? What is the elite spine? a. Squatter settlements
b. Elite spine: part of the city where it is nicer commercial industry, malls, government can keep it updated
13. Why were the Mercosur and UNASUR trade alliances formed?
a. United all of south america
14. What are the top 3 cocaine producing countries? What are the consequences of the illegal drug trade in the region?
a. Colombia (#1), Peru (#2), Bolivia (#3)
b. Consequences: created cartels, hunger and thirst
15. What is a mestizo?
a. European migration (european and indian ancestry)
16. What evidence demonstrates the resilience of the indian culture in latin america?
a. Forced assimilation
b. Amerindian languages persist
1. What is the general movement/path of hurricanes in the atlantic ocean? a. Typically enter through the lesser antilles, many form of coast of africa 2. What is the importance of the plantation agriculture in this region for the economy and for population?
a. A cultural region that extends from midway up the coast in brazil, through the guianas and the caribbean, and into the southeastern US. in this coastal zone, europeanowned plantations, worked by african laborers, produced agricultural products for export
b. It created rigid class lines and formed a multiracial society in which people with lighter skin were privileged
c. Many of the regions subsistence farmers are descendants of former slaves and continue to farm their small plots and work parttime as wage laborers on estates 3. Explain the concept of “isolated proximity”
a. A concept that explores the contradictory position of the Caribbean states, which are physically close to North America and economically dependent upon that region but also have strong loyalty and limited economic opportunity
4. Describe creolization
a. It is the blending of african, european, and amerindians
5. Name 2 countries other than spain that have territories in the caribbean a. French
6. What factors make the caribbean a major international tourist destination? a. Clear and sparkling turquoise waters
b. Cruise ship port/resorts
c. Tropical forests
d. Coastal barrier reefs
7. Describe the importance of the offshore banking industry to the global economy a. It is taxexempt and confidential
8. Name 2 environmental challenges that impact this region
b. Soil erosion
c. Water contamination
9. Education is a high priority as indicated in the development indicators. Describe the ‘brain drain’ and ‘brain gain’ migrations
a. Brain drain: migration of the besteducated people from developing countries to developed nations where economic opportunities are greater
b. Brain gain: the potential of return migrants to contribute to the social and economic development of a home country with the experiences they have gained abroad