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AU - BIOL 1030 - Class Notes - Organismal bio test 2 notes

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AU - BIOL 1030 - Class Notes - Organismal bio test 2 notes

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background image Organismal Bio test 2  Species- Ophisaurus ventralis (eastern glass lizard, joint snake, horn snake)  Genus- ophisaurus (movable eyelids)  Family- Anguidae (external ear openings) Suborder- lacertilia (lateral fold)  Order- squamata (autotomy)  Class- reptilia (regeneration)  Phylum- chordata (vent)  Kingdom- Animalia (tail)  Domain- eukarya  Species- canis familiaris (dog) Canidae Carnivora Mammalia Chardata Animalia Eukarya domestic (earliest domestication), self-domestication, artificial selection, breeds, 
nictitating membrane (3rd eyelid underneath upper and lower to add another 
layer of protection for the eye), dichromatic vision, canine teeth, nares (external 
openings on the nose), macrosmatic (superior ability to smell), turbinate bones 
(chambers in the nose that allow smells to stick around), olfactory epithelium** Seedless Vascular Plants  Superphylum- 2 to 4 phyla  Characteristics  o Terrestrial adaptations  vascular tissue sporophyte dominated life cycle  heterospory (meiospores) in some  microspores and megaspores  this will later lead to a separation of female/male parts of the
life cycle, allowing for different male/female strategies; the 
male gametophyte becomes a dispersal form; sperm are no 
longer flagellated and eventually seeds evolve  o in vascular plants- 3 tissue systems (from outside in) dermal tissue system- outside  epidermis- complex: more than one cell type/cover & protect o epidermal cells – thin, flat, with cuticle  cuticle prevents desiccation (water loss)  o guard cells- chloroplasts, control stomata  control stomatal openings  o trichomes- plant hairs  absorption, insulation, defense, carnivory, etc.  ground tissue system- makes up bulk of leaves, stems, and roots  parenchyma tissue- simple (1 cell type)  o parenchyma cells- alive and capable of mitosis,  photosynthesis, storage, wound repair, meristem  o thin cell wall  
background image collenchyma tissue- simple   o collenchyma cells- alive, no mitosis, flexible support o cell wall thickened with pectin and cellulose sclerenchyma tissue- simple  o sclerenchyma cells- dead at maturity, support,  hardest of plant parts  sclereids (short)  fibers (long)  o cell wall thickened with lignin  vascular tissue system- transporting water and nutrients to stem xylem: water transport (complex)  o conducting cells tracheids (pits) vessel members (pits and perforations)  o parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, & sclerenchyma  cells  phloem: food/nutrient transport (complex)  o conducting cells  sieve cells (sieve areas) sieve tube members (sieve areas and sieve 
o parenchyma cells (companion cells), collenchyma,  and sclerenchyma  o plant organs (each contain dermal, vascular, and ground)  stems  leaves- microphylls, megaphylls (branching venation)  roots  o annuals and perennials perennial- can survive year after year  annual- can only survive one year  o primary and secondary growth (woody)  primary growth- increase in length/height, herbaceous meristems   produced by root apical meristems/ primary meristems   shoot apical meristem  axillary buds  primary meristems- within each bud or apex o protoderm epidermis  o ground tissue system ground tissue 
o procambium vascular tissue 
undergo mitosis rapidly  o initials and derivatives  initials continue meristematic activity and 
derivatives differentiate into cells of tissues 
secondary- increase in width/girth (perennials only)  meristems  o vascular cambium xylem to the inside, phloem to the outside vascular cambium= fascicular cambium + 
interfascicular cambium 
background image develops from parenchyma cells within and 
between vascular bundles 
o cork cambium (phellogen) phelloderm inside,  phellum (cork) outside (all 3 layers= periderm)  Phylum Monilophyta  o Pterophyta- true ferns  Fern fronds with sori (composed of aggregates of sporangia)  Diversity: terrestrial, aquatic, epiphytic (grow upon other plants), 
o Psilophytes- whisk ferns  Look like little brooms; no true leaves and no true roots (only 
have stems)
Dichotomously branching stem  Sporangia born on stems  Psilotum nudum (has no leaves)  o Arthrophyta (Equisetophyta) – horsetails and scouring rushes  Equisetum (only genus left)  Hollowed stem, ribbed, silicates, whorls of microphylls (structure of 
leaf arrangement), nodes and internodes (long internodes) 
Structures  strobilus- cluster of sporophylls   sporophylls- have sporangeophores   sporangiophores (spore containers)- sporangia  elaters – hygroscopic; aid in spore dispersal  Phylum- Lycophyta (club mosses)  o Strobilus (club looking clusters)- clusters of sporophylls 
o Have Microphylls 
Heterospory- microspores and megaspores  Gymnosperms “naked seeds” 4 phyla  further reduction of gametophyte generation  heterospory- separation of male and female cycle  microgametophyte- pollen cone  megagametophyte- seed cone (in ovule)  sporophyte embryo develops within seed- “baby in a lunch box” o 3 layers  terrestrial adaptations  phylum coniferophyta – cone bearing trees  o tallest, biggest, oldest organisms  coast redwood, giant sequoia, bristlecone pine  o megasporangiate strobilus  o microsporangiate strobilus 
monoecious: find mega and micro sporangiates on the same tree 
pinus palustris- longleaf pine 
o male 
pollen cone/male cone/microsporangiate strobilus (look like small 
cobs of corn)
microsporophylls, microsporangia, microsporocytes (diploid cell that
starts the process of mitosis), microspores, microgametophytes 

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School: Auburn University
Department: Biology
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie Folkerts
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Organismal Biology and bioogy
Name: Organismal bio test 2 notes
Description: these are all the notes that will be covered on test 2
Uploaded: 03/07/2018
10 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
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