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Organismal Bio test 2 Species- Ophisaurus ventralis (eastern glass lizard, joint snake, horn snake) Genus- ophisaurus (movable eyelids) Family- Anguidae (external ear openings)Suborder- lacertilia (lateral fold) Order- squamata (autotomy) Class- reptilia (regeneration) Phylum- chordata (vent) Kingdom- Animalia (tail) Domain- eukarya Species- canis familiaris (dog)CanidaeCarnivoraMammaliaChardataAnimaliaEukaryadomestic (earliest domestication), self-domestication, artiﬁcial selection, breeds, nictitating membrane (3rd eyelid underneath upper and lower to add another layer of protection for the eye), dichromatic vision, canine teeth, nares (external openings on the nose), macrosmatic (superior ability to smell), turbinate bones (chambers in the nose that allow smells to stick around), olfactory epithelium**Seedless Vascular Plants Superphylum- 2 to 4 phyla Characteristics o Terrestrial adaptations vascular tissuesporophyte dominated life cycle heterospory (meiospores) in some microspores and megaspores this will later lead to a separation of female/male parts of the life cycle, allowing for different male/female strategies; the male gametophyte becomes a dispersal form; sperm are no longer flagellated and eventually seeds evolve o in vascular plants- 3 tissue systems (from outside in)dermal tissue system- outside epidermis- complex: more than one cell type/cover & protecto epidermal cells – thin, flat, with cuticle cuticle prevents desiccation (water loss) o guard cells- chloroplasts, control stomata control stomatal openings o trichomes- plant hairs absorption, insulation, defense, carnivory, etc. ground tissue system- makes up bulk of leaves, stems, and roots parenchyma tissue- simple (1 cell type) o parenchyma cells- alive and capable of mitosis, photosynthesis, storage, wound repair, meristem o thin cell wall
collenchyma tissue- simple o collenchyma cells- alive, no mitosis, flexible supporto cell wall thickened with pectin and cellulosesclerenchyma tissue- simple o sclerenchyma cells- dead at maturity, support, hardest of plant parts sclereids (short) ﬁbers (long) o cell wall thickened with ligninvascular tissue system- transporting water and nutrients to stemxylem: water transport (complex) o conducting cellstracheids (pits)vessel members (pits and perforations) o parenchyma cells, collenchyma cells, & sclerenchyma cells phloem: food/nutrient transport (complex) o conducting cells sieve cells (sieve areas)sieve tube members (sieve areas and sieve plates)o parenchyma cells (companion cells), collenchyma, and sclerenchyma o plant organs (each contain dermal, vascular, and ground) stems leaves- microphylls, megaphylls (branching venation) roots o annuals and perennialsperennial- can survive year after year annual- can only survive one year o primary and secondary growth (woody) primary growth- increase in length/height, herbaceous meristems produced by root apical meristems/ primary meristems shoot apical meristem axillary buds primary meristems- within each bud or apexo protoderm epidermis o ground tissue system ground tissue o procambium vascular tissue undergo mitosis rapidly o initials and derivatives initials continue meristematic activity and derivatives differentiate into cells of tissues secondary- increase in width/girth (perennials only) meristems o vascular cambium xylem to the inside, phloem to theoutsidevascular cambium= fascicular cambium + interfascicular cambium
develops from parenchyma cells within and between vascular bundles o cork cambium (phellogen) phelloderm inside, phellum (cork) outside (all 3 layers= periderm) Phylum Monilophyta o Pterophyta- true ferns Fern fronds with sori (composed of aggregates of sporangia) Diversity: terrestrial, aquatic, epiphytic (grow upon other plants), etc. o Psilophytes- whisk ferns Look like little brooms; no true leaves and no true roots (only have stems)Dichotomously branching stem Sporangia born on stems Psilotum nudum (has no leaves) o Arthrophyta (Equisetophyta) – horsetails and scouring rushes Equisetum (only genus left) Hollowed stem, ribbed, silicates, whorls of microphylls (structure of leaf arrangement), nodes and internodes (long internodes) Structures strobilus- cluster of sporophylls sporophylls- have sporangeophores sporangiophores (spore containers)- sporangia elaters – hygroscopic; aid in spore dispersal Phylum- Lycophyta (club mosses) o Strobilus (club looking clusters)- clusters of sporophylls o Have Microphylls o Heterospory- microspores and megaspores Gymnosperms “naked seeds”4 phyla further reduction of gametophyte generation heterospory- separation of male and female cycle microgametophyte- pollen cone megagametophyte- seed cone (in ovule) sporophyte embryo develops within seed- “baby in a lunch box”o 3 layers terrestrial adaptations phylum coniferophyta – cone bearing trees o tallest, biggest, oldest organisms coast redwood, giant sequoia, bristlecone pine o megasporangiate strobilus o microsporangiate strobilus o monoecious: ﬁnd mega and micro sporangiates on the same tree o pinus palustris- longleaf pine o male pollen cone/male cone/microsporangiate strobilus (look like small cobs of corn)microsporophylls, microsporangia, microsporocytes (diploid cell that starts the process of mitosis), microspores, microgametophytes (pollen)
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School: Auburn University
Course: Organismal Biology
Professor: Debbie Folkerts
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: Organismal Biology and bioogy
Name: Organismal bio test 2 notes
Description: these are all the notes that will be covered on test 2
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