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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 8

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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 8

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 8 - 5 March 2018
Description: Notes for lectures for week 8, (3/5/18 and 3/7/18)
Uploaded: 03/07/2018
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background image     Week 8 
ANTH 1500 5 March 2018  
  
Europe: Megaliths and Stonehenge 
 
Sites: 
•  Avebury 
•  Carnac 
•  Stonehenge 
•  Locmariaquer 
•  Charavines 
•  Ötzi 
•  Franchthi Cave 
  
European Chronology 
•  Mesolithic > ca. 5000 
•  Neolithic (Food production, megalith construction, Stonehenge phs. 1) ca. 
5000–ca. 3100  •  Copper Age (Beaker culture, Stonehenge phs. 2 & 3) ca. 2800–1800 
•  Bronze Age (Arrival of Indo-Europeans) 1800–ca. 800 
•  Iron Age (Celtic Britain and France) 800–AD 43 
•  Roman Period AD 43–476 
          
 Food production in Europe 
•  Rapid spread from SW Asia into Mediterranean 
•  Franchthi Cave, Greece  
–  7000 BC 
–  Spread of agriculture 
•  Slower adoption in north 
•  People or technology? 
•  Local domestication of pig? 
    Ötzi, the Neolithic Iceman  •  Found in the Ötztal Alps by German tourists 
•  3359–3105 BC 
•  45 years old at death 
•  1.65 m (5’5”) tall 
background image     •  Violent death  –  Arrow injury 
–  Trauma to skull 
   
 Ötzi, the Neolithic Iceman 
•  Specialist analyses:  o  Last meals: meat, bread, sloe at mid-altitudes 
o  DNA: closely matches some isolated S. European pops. 
o  Illnesses: whipworm, cavities, lactose intolerant, and maybe Lyme? 
     
  Submerged Neolithic lake villages 
•  France and Switzerland 
•  Exceptional preservation through waterlogging 
•  Once thought to be built on the lakes 
•  Charavines 
–  Amié Bocquet 
–  Neolithic or “Wood Age”  
–  Perishable tech preserved 
   
 Megaliths: large stone monuments 
•  4000 BC: Appear in Britain, Mediterranean, and Atlantic parts of Europe 
•  Last for 2000+ years until ca. 2000 BC 
•  Most dated by 
14 C analysis of associated artifacts  •  Likely built by Neolithic farmers (seasonal labor)      
 Types of megaliths 
1.  Menhir  a.  Standing stone = orthostat = monolith  2.  Alignment  a.  Rows of Menhir  3.  Dolmen  a.  At least two upright stones, supporting a horizontal cap- stone  4.  Henge  a.  A circular ditch surrounded by a bank     
 Menhirs: Locmariaquer, Brittany, NW France 
•  Largest menhir 
background image     •  Broken into 4 pieces  
•  68ft tall (21m) 
•  330 tons 
     
Alignments: Carnac, Brittany, France (4000 BCE) 
•  Approx. 3000 stones 
•  Alignment with 13 parallel rows (4 miles long) 
•  Each row ca. 1 mile long 
•  Stone = 51⁄2 tons (3 cars) 
•  Folklore: Roman army 
•  Battle memorial? 
•  Religious landscape? 
•  Astronomical purpose? 
      
Dolmen: 
•  A megalithic tomb with a roof 
•  Gallery grave  
•  Passage grave 
         
 Dolmen: 
•  Most dolmens originally covered with compacted dirt to form a tumulus 
•  Common burial structure across Eurasia and Africa 
•  “barrow” 
•  Le tumulus du Trou de Billemont, Belgium 
•  Midas Tumulus Gordion, Turkey 
    
Avebury, Wiltshire (England) 
•  Numerous henges in Wiltshire 
•  ~2500 BCE 
•  Largest henge in Britain (ca. 1000 m) 
•  3 stone circles made of Sarsen sandstone 
     
 Avebury Ditch 
•  6 people deep 
•  Ditch carved into limestone with non-metallic tools 
•  Very labor intensive 
    

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 - Week 8 - 5 March 2018
Description: Notes for lectures for week 8, (3/5/18 and 3/7/18)
Uploaded: 03/07/2018
11 Pages 35 Views 28 Unlocks
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