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EMU / Evolutionary Anthropology / ANTH 135 / What is the difference between race and ethnicity?

What is the difference between race and ethnicity?

What is the difference between race and ethnicity?

Description

School: Eastern Michigan University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Professor: Cerroni-long
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: ANTH 135: STUDY GUIDE
Description: This study guide is filled with critical information that you MUST know for our next exam. The content goes over everything that he gave us in the handout study guide from Prof. Ensor.
Uploaded: 03/07/2018
4 Pages 12 Views 10 Unlocks
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Quick Study Guide: What You Need To Know! ANTH 135: Exam 2 


What is the difference between race and ethnicity?



● Globalization

○ Two main reasons why capitalism expands 

■ Ex: lower production costs 

■ Ex: new markets to avoid crises of overproduction 

○ Underdevelopment 

■ Assumes that a nation’s development is being undermined 

○ World Systems theory 

■ Remember that the core is developed BECAUSE of the periphery ■ Core: advanced capitalism (i.e. America) 

■ Periphery: underdeveloped (3rd world nations) 

○ Cross­Cultural Generalizations 

■ The impact of structural adjustment programs on proletarians were  job cuts, reduced wages, increased costs, higher taxes.


What is bilocality?



■ Impacts of globalization on foraging and pastoral societies were  forced removal (relocation to sedentary villages), commodities for  international markets, preserves tourism, etc.

■ Impacts of globalization on horticultural societies were international  demands for cash crops and loss of forests.

■ Impacts of globalization on peasant agriculturalists were better land use for local food production, subsidized grains from the core, 

peasants had dependency money for food.

● Race 

○ What does the “race” concept assume? Don't forget about the age old question of engl 225 class notes

■ Belief that biology creates cultural capabilities that can be ranked  for different roles

○ Spanish Colonial system 

■ Inclusion of conquered into the new society 


What is bilateral kinship?



■ Based on blended (ex. Mestizo, Mulatto, Sambo) 

○ Brazilian system 

■ Hundreds of categories 

■ Numerous physical attributes 

■ Social factors: class and physiological change 

■ People change their race overtime 

○ British/French system 

■ Exclusion of conquered from the new society 

■ Hypodescent: children of “mixed” marriage placed in minority parents’ category. We also discuss several other topics like adrian bravo william and mary

○ Social races

■ Historically and socially created classes 

○ Difference between “race” and ethnicity” 

■ Race is what you ARE 

■ Ethnicity is what your LIFESTYLE is 

● The Sororate: the widower remarrying his deceased wife’s sister ○ THINK: SOROR AS TO SISTER 

● The Levirate: the widow remarrying her deceased husband’s brother ○ THINK: LEVIR MEANS “BROTHER­IN­LAW” IN LATIN 

● Patrilineal (Unilineal) Kinship 

○ Descent, group membership, and inheritance 

■ Descent thru father’s group If you want to learn more check out arenosity

■ Corporate Patrilineal EF 

■ Members inherit resources thru fathers only 

○ Patrilineages 

■ patrilineally­related  

■ Patrilineage resources, obligations, ceremonies, etc. 

○ Patriclans 

■ Larger scale of patrilineal groups 

○ Marriage 

■ Omaha marriage rules 

● Patriclan exogamy 

● NO members of mother’s clan 

● Matrilineal (Unilineal) Kinship 

○ Descent, group membership, and inheritance 

■ Descent thru mother’s group 

■ Corporate Matrilineal EF 

■ Members inherit resources thru mothers only 

○ Matrilineal extended families 

■ People belong to the corporate matrilineal group 

■ Matrilineally­related 

■ Matrilineage resources, obligations, ceremonies, etc. 

○ Matriclans 

■ Larger scale of matrilineal groups 

○ Marriage 

■ Crow marriage rules 

● Matriclan exogamy We also discuss several other topics like mgmt 3010

● NO members of father’s clan 

● Bilateral Kinship 

○ Kindred: bilaterally related people (genealogical relations) 

■ A network, NOT a group 

■ Includes cross­relations and even affines (relatives by marriage) ○ Bilateral descent: how is it used?

■ People trace descent thru mothers AND fathers (grandparents are  included)

■ Bilateral descent is flexible, meaning that you can choose who is  important to you in your family (ex: clinging onto your rich aunt)

○ Bilocality 

■ Couple negotiate which household to live in (no automatic 

placement and not guaranteed) If you want to learn more check out macy'scom

■ Household heads must evaluate and accept the couple 

■ “Core members”: sisters and/or brothers and cousins 

○ Marriage strategy 

■ Universal incest taboo: close family biological relatives (ex. Parents and siblings)

■ Cousin marriage allows you to keep the resources in the family 

■ It is possible to marry a member of the same bilocal household 

● Neolocal Kinship 

○ Neolocality 

■ Couple establishes new home away from parents 

■ No resources at home for couple/parents 

■ More opportunities away from parents (ex. Wage labor) If you want to learn more check out cs-064

■ Proletarians under capitalism 

○ Form of descent 

■ Bilateral descent 

■ Only symbolic importance 

■ Genealogical amnesia: little knowledge of kinship 

Kinship Terminology KEY 

F: Father      M:Mother 

B: Brother     Z: “Sister” 

S: Son          D: Daughter 

U: Uncle       A: aunt 

Kinship Terminology

Omaha Kinship

Father’s Clan

Mother’s Clan

Parents

Men (F) Women (FZ)

Men (MB) Women (M)

Ego

Men (B) Women (Z)

Men (MB) Women (M)

Children 

Men (S) Women (D)

Men (MB) Women (M)

Crow Kinship

Father’s Clan

Mother’s Clan

Parents

Men (F) Women (FZ)

Men (MB) Women (M)

Ego

Men (F) Women (FZ)

Men (B) Women (Z)

Children 

Men (F) Women (FZ)

Men (S) Women (D)

Iroquois Kinship 

Patrilineal Kin

Matrilineal Kin

Parents

Men (F) Women (FZ)

Men (MB) Women (M)

Ego

Men (B) Women (Z)

Men (B) Women (Z)

Hawaiian Kinship

Father’s Side

Mother’s Side

Parents

Men (F) Women (M)

Men (F) Women (M)

Ego

Men (B) Women (Z)

Men (B) Women (Z)

Neolocal Kinship 

Ego’s Household

All other Kin

Parents

Men (F) Women (M)

Men (U) Women (A)

Ego

Men (B) Women (Z)

Men (C) Women (C)

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