CFD Midterm Study Guide 1-6
CFD Midterm Study Guide 1-6 CFD155
Popular in Principles of Human Development
Popular in Child and Family Studies
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Heard on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CFD155 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Sabrina Brinson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Development in Child and Family Studies at Missouri State University.
Reviews for CFD Midterm Study Guide 1-6
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/27/16
CFD 155 Chapter 1 Socioeconomic status not only involves education and income levels, but also introduces new factors such as classism and sexism Skinner (operant conditioning) trained pigeons -responses can go into extinction -variable reinforcement schedule, time of reward is unpredictable so therefore we do it even though we may not get a reward Social Learning Theory (cognitive behaviorism): we learn by nurturing (environment development) and watching others and doing as they do Attachment Theory: importance of being close to caregiver during early childhood Evolutionary psychologists = behaviorist -behavioral genetics: determine nature role in behaviors (twin studies, adoption, & twin/adoption studies) Humans affect one another (bidirectional) Erik Erikson (psychoanalyst) -psychosocial tasks: have to master one before you move onto the next 1. Infancy (birth-1) basic trust vs mistrust 2. Toddler (1-2) autonomy vs shame & doubt 3. Early childhood (3-6) initiative vs guilt 4. Middle childhood (6-puberty) industry vs inferiority 5. Adolescence (10-20) identity vs role confusion 6. Young adulthood (20-40) intimacy vs isolation 7. Middle adulthood (40-60) generativity vs stagnation 8. Late adulthood (60+) integrity vs despair Piaget -assimilation: fitting into the world -accommodation: changing our thinking to fit into the world -cognitive developmental theory (4 stages throughout life) 1. (0-2) sensorimotor 2. (2-7) pre-operations 3. (8-12) concrete operations 4. (12+) formal operations Developmental systems perspective: stress need to use different approaches Correlational study: relation between 2 variables CFD 155 Cross-sectional vs longitudinal study Quantitative vs qualitative research VOCAB: Lifespan development: scientific study of human growth throughout life Child development: study of childhood and teenage years Gerontology: study of aging Adult development: study of adult part of life Normative transitions: predictable life changes that occur during development Non-normative transitions: unpredictable life changes that occur during development Contexts of development: fundamental markers (ex. cohort, socioeconomic status, culture, gender) that shape development of lifespan Cohort: age group with who we grow up with Baby boom cohort: huge group born between 1946-1964 Emerging adulthood: phase that begins after high school and ends around late 20s Average life expectancy: person's 50/50 chance of living to certain age 20 century life expectancy revolutionary: dramatic increase in life expectancy during first half of 20 century Maximum lifespan: biological limit of human life (~105 years) Young-old: people in 60s & 70s Old-old: people age 80 or older Great Recession of 2008: dramatic loss of jobs that began with burst in housing bubble in 2007 Income inequality: gap between rich and poor within nation Socioeconomic status: marker that refers to educational and income levels Developed world: most affluent countries in world Developing world: more impoverished countries of world Collectivist cultures: society that cares more about social harmony, obedience, and close family over individual achievement Individualistic cultures: society that cares more about independence, competition, and personal success Theory: perspective on topic that can't be true or false Nature: biological or genetic Traditional behaviorism: original worldview that focused on modifying only visible behaviors Operant conditioning: response produced from reinforcement Reinforcement: reward Modeling: learn by watching and imitating Self-efficacy: the belief in how competent we are Evocative forces: natural temperament produce a certain response from the world Active forces: we voluntarily select our environments based on genetics Personal-environment fit: environment is tailored to biological factors Representative sample: group that reflects population Naturalistic observation: watch in setting and record behaviors CFD 155 Self-report strategy: reflect on yourself Chapter 2 Fertilization: sperm from testes and travels through cervix>uterus>fallopian tubes Chromosome>DNA>gene 1. Germinal stage: 1 14 days of prenatal development 2. Embryonic stage: week 3-8 (neural tube) 3. Fetal stage: week 9-birth Prenatal -Proximodistal sequence: inner>outer development -Cephalocaudal sequence: top>bottom -Mass-to-specific sequence: small>large Age of viability: earliest point baby can survive outside womb Nutrients passed through umbilical cord Gestation=pregnancy Trimester: 3 month segment of pregnancy 1. 1 : feel tired & ill 2. 2 : feel better and connect emotionally rd 3. 3 : get large, wait for pregnancy Birth defects: physical or neural problem during prenatal or birth Teratogen: harmful substance that paces fetus (ex. Smoking, alcohol) o Sensitive period: most vulnerable o Developmental disorders: learning impairments & behavioral problems during infancy & childhood Fetal programming research: explores impact of traumatic pregnancy events and stress on low birth weight, obesity, & long term problems Down syndrome: chromosomal abnormality causes mental retardation, health problems, etc. Gene Disorders Single-gene Dominant (ex. Hungtington's) Recessive (ex. Cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia) Sex-linked single-gene (ex. Hemophilia) -genetic testing: blood test to determine possible disorders -prenatal tests (ultrasound) CFD 155 st -chorionic villus sampling (CVS) diagnosis various chromosomal and genetic conditions during 1 trimester -amniocentesis: (during 2 trimester) piercing of uterus Infertility: inability to conceive Assisted reproductive technology (ART): egg fertilized outside of womb In vitro fertilization: fertilized outside of womb and then put into womb Birth stages 1. dilation and effacement 2. Birth 3. Expulsion of placenta -Types: natural [water birth], c-section -agar scale: measure just delivered baby (heart rate, muscle tone, respiration, reflex response, color) Born too small or too soon low birth weight: <5 ½ pounds Very low birth weight: <3 ¼ pounds Neonatal intensive care unit: special hospital for at-risk newborns Infant mortality: death during 1 year of life Chapter 3 Neuron: axon>dendrite>synapse Synaptogenesis: process of connections Myelination: formation of fatty layer around axons Newborn reflexes -sucking -rooting: touch their cheek and they turn toward it to suck Malnutrition Undernutrition: chronic lack of food Stunting: excessively short from lack of nutrition Micronutrient deficiency: chronic inadequate level of specific nutrients Food insecurity: not having enough money to buy foods for a balanced diet Colic: baby's frantic, continual crying Kangaroo care: wrapping baby tightly in blanket or garment Swaddling: carrying young baby in sling close to caregiver Sleep CFD 155 REM sleep: phase involving rapid eye movement Self-soothing: ability to put yourself back to sleep as baby (~6 months) co-sleeping: child and parent share a bed st Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): unexplained death in sleep for infants during 1 year Sight Preferential-looking paradigm: human beings are attracted to selective new things Habituation: natural loss of attention for new objects Face perception studies: preference to look at faces as young babies Depth perception: ability to see heights Visual cliff: table that appears to drop-off Cognition Piaget's Sensorimotor stages (chapter 1) Circular reactions: habits children repeat over again Primary circular reactions: accidental repetitive actions (1-4 months) Secondary circular reactions: exploring external world (~4 months) Tertiary circular reactions: exploring object properties (~1 year) Little-scientist phase: use tertiary circular reactions to experiment Means-end behavior: ability to perform different action to achieve goal Object permanence: just because you can't see it doesn't mean it's not there A-not-B error: move object in plain sight and baby will still go to previous location Information-processing approach: child's thoughts are comparable to computer Social cognition: any skill related to interpersonal skills Joint attention: child looks to what adult is pointing to Language -grammar -babbling>holophrase>telegraphic speech Infant-directed speech (IDS) CFD 155 Chapter 4 John Bowlby 'no such thing as excessive mother love' Attachment: powerful bond of love between child & caregiver ▯ Primary attachment figure: closest person in life ▯ Proximity-seeking behavior: act of maintaining close to attachment figure -milestones st ▯ Preattachment phase: no visible sign of attachment during 1 3 months (Bowlby) ▯ Social smile: 1 real smile (~2 months) ▯ Attachment in the making: 2 phase, (4-7 months) babies slight preference to primary caregiver ▯ Clear-cut attachment: (7 months-toddlerhood) separation & stranger anxiety ▯ Social referencing: baby checks with mom as a monitor of how to act ▯ Working model: allow children over 3 years to be physically apart from caregiver Attachment styles -strange situation (Mary Ainsworth) procedure to measure attachment at age 1 1. Secure: won't freak out when mother leaves 2. Insecure 3. Avoidant: detached 4. Anxious-ambivalent: very distressed and confused when mother returns 5. Disorganized: frightened at the caregiver's return -synchrony: child and caregiver's emotional responses are in tune -temperament: inborn style of dealing with the world Does infant attachment predict later development? Early-childhood poverty is highly prevalent in the US -can affect education 1. Head start: federal program offers high-quality day care for preschoolers (3-5) from low-income families 2. Early Head Start: federal program offers counseling to low-income parents and children (<3 years of age) Preschool (teacher-oriented), family day care (neighborhood), day-care center Erikson's Psychosocial Stages ▯ Toddlerhood (1-2): autonomy vs shame & doubt ▯ Autonomy: understanding they are separate individuals ▯ Socialization: process by which children are taught the norms of society ▯ Power assertion: involves yelling, screaming, or hitting out in frustration at a child ▯ Goodness of fit: arranging environment to child's temperament CFD 155 Chapter 5 Cerebral cortex takes more than 2 decades to fully mature ▯ Frontal lobes: responsible for planning and reasoning ▯ Synaptogenesis: process of making billions of connections between neurons Early childhood (3-5) middle childhood (6-11) Physical Development -after infancy growth slows -from 2-12 height & weight doubles Mass-to-specific principle: steady progression from clumsy to swift movements Motor skills ▯ Gross: muscle movement (ex. Running) ▯ Fine: (ex. Coordinated movement (ex. Drawing) Lack of food is a threat to growth Childhood obesity: BMI (body mass index) at or above 95 percentile to norms -causes: lack of exercise, watching excessive TV, excessive snacking, embarrassment of looking clumsy, obesogenic (comes from genetics) Piaget's Stages (4) 1. (0-2) sensorimotor 2. (2-7) preoperational: what children are missing a. Conservation tasks: ex. 2 rows of pennies (same amount in both rows), make one look longer, and child responds the longer row has more pennies b. Reversibility: change something and go back to original form c. Centering: focus on most appealing feature d. Class inclusion: layout Skittles & gummi bears, ask if child wants Skittles or the candy e. Seriation: ability to put objects in order (ex. Size) f. Identity constancy: ex. Dad puts on mask and child becomes scared g. Animism: inanimate objects are alive h. Artificialism: belief humans make everything in nature i. Egocentrism: inability to understand other points of view 3. (8-12) concrete operational 4. (12+) Formal operations CFD 155 Development -cephalocaudal principle: growth in sequence Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky): gap between child's ability to solve problem on their own with knowledge -scaffolding: teach new skills by entering child's zone of proximal development Piaget vs Vygotsky (nature vs nurture) ▯ Working memory: have their own history and process whether it's long or short term ▯ Executive functions: any skill related to management of memory ▯ Rehearsal: repeat info to remember it ▯ Selective attention: put awareness on what is relevant and filter unneeded info Develop speech ▯ Inner speech ▯ Phoneme ▯ Morpheme ▯ Mean length of utterance (MLU) ▯ Syntax ▯ Semantics ▯ Overregularization: apply rules to exceptions so irregular forms resemble regular forms ▯ Overextension: error where apply verbal labels too broadly ▯ Underextension: error where apply verbal labels too narrowly Chapter 6 Sociomental development ▯ Emotional regulation: keep one's own feeling in check ▯ Externalizing tendencies: act on impulse ▯ Internalize tendencies: involves intense fear, social inhibition Self-esteem: evaluate oneself as good or bad comparing to someone else Erikson's Psychosocial Stages ▯ Early childhood (3-6): initiative vs guilt ▯ Middle childhood (6-puberty): industry vs inferiority Initiative vs guilt: actively take on life tasks Industry vs inferiority: manage emotions and that success takes hard work CFD 155 -learned helplessness: no matter what you do you can't change the outcome Self-efficacy: feeling that you can succeed ▯ Prosocial behavior: sharing, helping, and caring actions ▯ Altruism: prosocial behavior carried out as selfless act ▯ Empathy: feeling exact emotion of others ▯ Sympathy: feel upset about others emotions Shame (feel humiliated) vs guilt (violate personal moral) Aggression: acts designed to harm 1. Instrumental: purposeful 2. Reactive: response to being hurt 3. Relational: intent to damage relationship 4. Direct: everyone can see Hostile attributional bias: tendency of highly aggressive children to see actions as threatening when they are harmless Play 1. Rough-and-tumble 2. Fantasy 3. Laborative pretend gender-stereotyped toys Gender-separated play Gender Schema Theory: once gender label established model after similar sex Relationships 1. Friendships (similarity, trust, emotional support 2. Popularity 3. bullying
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'