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UW / Art / ARCH 351 / What is lantern?

What is lantern?

What is lantern?

Description

School: University of Washington
Department: Art
Course: Romanesque, Gothic, and Rennaissance Architecture
Professor: Brian mclaren
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Architecture, history, and ENVD Architecture History
Cost: 50
Name: ARCH 351 exam review
Description: final review
Uploaded: 03/10/2018
10 Pages 87 Views 9 Unlocks
Reviews


1


What is lantern?



Terms

piazza

- Italian public square 

- ex/ Piazza della Signoria, Florence, Italy 

place

- French public square 

- ex/ Place Royale (Place des Vosges), Paris, France  

crenellations

- a pattern of repeated depressed openings in a fortification wall  

- ex/ Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy 

lantern

- a small, fenestrated tower on top of a roof or dome, admitting light to the space below 

- ex/ Duomo, Florence, Italy 

rustication


What is cornice?



- the separation of regular masonry blocks by deeply cut, often wedge-shaped grooves 

- ex/ Palazzo Medici, Florence, Italy 

string course

- a projecting horizontal band across an exterior wall of a building  

- ex/ Palazzo Medici, Florence, Italy 

cornice

- a projecting ornamental molding along the top of a building or wall  

- ex/ Palazzo Medici, Florence, Italy 

kremlin

- citadel in Moscow; seat of Russian government  

- ex/ Kremlin, Moscow, Russia 

quincunx


Great mosque, isfahan, iran, all made what?



We also discuss several other topics like What is esteem?

- the composition of a church using four domes placed symmetrically around a larger central dome - ex/ Cathedral of the Dormition, Kremlin, Moscow, Russia  

tsar

- Russian emperor 

- ex/ Kremlin, Moscow, Russia 

chinampas

- floating artificial islands for agricultural production  

- ex/ Tenochtitlan, Mexico 

brackets

- a projection from a vertical surface providing support under beams, cornices, balconies, and window frames - ex/ Ninomaru Palace, Kyoto, Japan We also discuss several other topics like What is the polio virus?

minaret

- a tall, slender tower at a mosque, from which the faithful are called to prayer by the crier  

- ex/ Great Mosque, Bursa,Turkey 

külliye

- Turkish building complex centered around a mosque and including educational, charitable, and medical facilities  - ex/ Mosque Complex of Suleyman, Istanbul, Turkey 

diwan

- a Persian word indicating the executive council, which often referred to the space for assemblies, an open hypostyle  hall in a Persian or Mughal palace

- ex/ Palace Complex, Fatehpur Sikri, India  

loggia

- a roofed porch or gallery with an open arcade or colonnade  

- ex/ Piazza della Signoria, Florence, Italy 

quoins

- rusticated stones placed on the corners of a building  We also discuss several other topics like What kinds of “victim rights” provisions exist in the u.s?

- ex/ Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy  

villa

- a country house used as a gateway for urban elites 

- ex/ Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy

2

pediment

- placed as the crowning feature over a door or window 

- ex/ Santa Maria Novella facade, Florence, Italy  

iwan

- a large vaulted space open at one end, used in Islamic palaces, mosques, and madrasas - ex/ Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran 

pishtaq

- the entry facade to Persian monumental religious complexes framing an iwan with slender minarets - ex/ Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran Don't forget about the age old question of When was the johnnie walker black label 'jane walker edition' debuts?

maydan

- a large open space used for public ceremonies in large Islamic cities  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of harvesting?

- ex/ Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran 

obelisk

- a tall, square shaft, usually of one piece of stone, tapering upward and ending in a pyramidal tip  - ex/ Sixtus V plan for Rome, italy 

baldachinno

- large, sculpted, bronze canopy over the altar  

- ex/ St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy 

colonnade

- a row of columns supporting a beam or entablature  

- ex/ S. Lorenzo, Florence, Italy 

chateau

- large French country house or castle 

- ex/ Chateau and Gardens of Versailles, France 

allée

- a broad avenue flanked by trees  We also discuss several other topics like What are the internal factors affecting consumer behaviour?

- ex/ Chateau and Gardens of Versailles, France 

tenshu

- a Japanese castle built in the 16th and 17th centuries  

- ex/ Himeji Castle, outside Kobe, Japan 

shoin

- the palace type built in Japan during the Edo period on an asymmetrical layout, like a flock of geese  - ex/ Ninomaru Palace, Kyoto, Japan 

long gallery

- a new element on the third story where Bess of Hardwick could look out over the countryside - ex/ Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, England  

Monuments  

Piazza della Signoria, Florence, Italy — 13-14th centuries  

- city hall with civic space around it 

- loggia — large enclosed porch 

- city hall — place of residence/administration  

- demonstrates increasing influence of Florence as a trading center  

Arnolfo di Cambio, Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, Italy — 1299

- form of a traditional fortified palace  

- built with rough stone — looks imposing and defensive  

- able to be defended 

- battlements on top project out 

- expanded over centuries to much larger than its original form  

- organized around a central courtyard  

- compare to Doge’s Palace 

- both seats of government 

- Palazzo Vecchio is very well-defended 

- Doge’s Palace doesn’t need to be because it’s on the water

3

Arnolfo di Cambio, Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (Duomo), Florence, Italy — 1296 - longitudinal basilica 

- the nave has 4 bays and a large octagonal crossing with 3 apses 

- pointed arches, rib vaults — gothic  

- relatively wide in relation to its height  

- classical decoration  

- monumental dome over the crossing  

Brunelleschi, Cathedral dome, Florence, Italy — 1418 (lantern — 1460)

- no one knew how to build such a huge dome 

- the thin-walled vertical drum couldn’t be buttressed 

- the wide span of the octagon was too wide for wooden centering 

- Brunelleschi won a contest to build it 

- a segmental dome, rather than semicircular 

- uses the form of the pointed arch — exerts force down, not out 

- double shell allows it to be lighter 

- uses brick and stone ribs, not concrete 

- iron chains within the ribs offer more support  

- interlocking herringbone brick pattern 

- dome is open at the top — topped by a lantern 

- closes the opening and adds weight on top 

Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy — 1420

- chapel designated for preparation for the mass and a burial site marked by a dome 

- cubic volume with a dome on pendentives  

- all elements are proportional  

- highly decorated — coat of arms within the pendentives  

Brunelleschi and Michelozzo, Church of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy — 1420-60

- Latin cross plan comparable to earlier Florentine churches 

- flat coffered ceiling with a dome above the crossing  

- colonnaded nave with rounded columns is reminiscent of antiquity  

- round, not pointed, arches 

- made of dark stone and light stucco 

- taking classical language and developing something new 

Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence, Italy — 1445

- restatement of ancient Roman house form 

- heavy rustication becomes smoother up the building  

- very strong cornice on top  

- regular square courtyard surrounded by 3 bays  

- deep loggia leads into a walled garden  

- the ground floor is a meeting space  

- the entrance wall is skewed so the corner projects out into the street — prominence  

- sets the standard for subsequent palaces in Florence  

Alberti and Rossellino, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence Italy — 1450-70

- remodeled existing buildings  

- the facade renovation with 8 bays was never finished  

- similar to Palazzo Medici  

- horizontal layers topped by a cornice  

- entablature on each level 

- palasters on each level create a grid across the facade  

- the first Renaissance example of classical column orders on a facade — Corinthian and Doric capitals  - columns represent beauty, harmony, ornament 

- the arches and columns are similar to those at the Colosseum

4

Alberti, Santa Maria Novella facade, Florence, Italy — 1458-70

- reference to ancient Rome and other Florentine buildings  

- pronounced temple front — pediment with entablature  

- pronounced attic story  

- the volute form masks the sloping roof over the side aisles  

- the decoration and ornamentation reflects the patronage  

- symbols of the Rucellai and Medici 

Michelangelo, Laurentian Library Ricetto, Florence, Italy — 1523-65

- part of the S. Lorenzo monastic complex  

- the entry vestibule to the library  

- small plan rises high up 

- doorway capped by a pediment, bounded by pairs of columns embedded in the wall 

- the sculptural stairway takes up the majority of the space  

Cathedral of the Transfiguration, Kizhi Island, Russia — 18th century  

- huge wooden church on a raised platform  

- central plan with a Greek cross plan at the core 

- has multiple onion domes and exterior barrel vaults  

- low interior roof — the exterior ornament is not visible from inside 

- Kokoshnik gables are representative of women’s headdresses  

Kremlin, Moscow, Russia —walls built 1490s

- built for Tsar Ivan III 

- signifies triumph 

- Russian administrative center  

- planned to be the third Rome 

- influenced by the Byzantines  

- brought in Italian designers  

- brick walls with stone buildings  

- houses multiple churches  

Aristotile Fioravanti, Cathedral of the Dormition, Kremlin, Moscow, Russia — 1470s

- Russian orthodox church housed official ceremonies  

- iconostasis — decorated wall that separates the congregation from the chapels  

- rectangular plan with 5 domes on tall drums — quincunx 

- the central dome is the tallest and largest  

- 4 massive piers inside  

- create a 9-square grid 

- characteristic of central Asian architecture  

St. Basil Cathedral, Moscow, Russia — 1552

- built as Ivan the Terrible’s victory monument over the Mongols  

- rejected Italian forms — return to traditional Russian elements  

- emphasized the orthodox link to Constantinople  

- promoted Moscow as the new Jerusalem  

- collection of 8 independent chapels around a central nave  

- characteristic onion domes over the chapels  

- brightly colored with ceramic decoration  

Great Temple (Coatepetl), Tenochtitlan, Mexico — 14-16th centuries  

- part of the city on the lake that was connected to the surrounding land by causeways  

- ceremonial center at the core of the city  

- dedicated to the rain and sun gods  

- the buildings were replaced with Spanish colonial buildings when the Spanish conquered the Aztecs

5

Cuzco, Peru — rebuilt 1440s

- ‘cuzco’ means ‘navel of the world’ — center of the world  

- the shape of the city follows the form of a puma  

- gridded city organized around a ceremonial center  

Sacsahuaman Temple compound, Cuzco, Peru — 14-15th centuries  

- fortress above the city for the Inca and then the Spanish  

- made of large stones  

- created expertly-shaped blocks without metal tools 

- no mortar — careful shaping and positioning of the stones keeps them in place  

- the stones themselves become an element of worship  

Machu Picchu, Peru — 1460s

- regular blocks of residential areas interspersed with religious buildings  

- water infrastructure and terracing for agricultural production  

Forbidden City (Imperial Palace), Beijing, China — 15-16th centuries  

- imperial city at the core of Beijing  

- walled complex with a moat  

- gridded organization, axial alignment 

- ceremonial core — Hall of Supreme Harmony, Middle Harmony, Preserving Harmony  

- Hall of Supreme Harmony  

- made of wood with stone column bases 

- richly ornamented throne room — for presentation and reception  

- bracket framing system supports the heavy clay roof 

- extends beyond the pier supports  

- imperial audience halls  

- raised on a stepped stone plinth  

- wooden walls with a clay tiled roof  

Faith Mosque Complex, Istanbul, Turkey — 1463-70

- built for Mehmed II 

- at the site of a former Byzantine church  

- has a huge dome with half domes and other smaller domes 

- courtyard leads to the mosque which leads to tombs 

- rows of madrasas on either side with a hostel and kitchen behind 

Topkapi Palace, Istanbul, Turkey — 1465

- built on the site of a Byzantine acropolis  

- walled precinct controls movement 

- fragmented and informal arrangement of parts  

- similar to the Alhambra 

- tiled kiosk  

- vaulted halls 

- recurring use of the iwan 

- cruciform plan with a dome at the intersection of the axes 

- Council Hall 

- arcaded front 

- marble columns with muqarnas capitals  

- main council chamber — a domed hall with benches around the perimeter  

- richly decorated 

- Audience Hall 

- tent-like form 

- muqarnas capitals  

- housed the throne of the sultan  

- similar to the Hall of the Ambassadors at the Alhambra

6

Sinan, Suleymaniye Mosque Complex, Istanbul, Turkey — 1552

- public focus — hospital, kitchen, guesthouses, madrasas 

- sits on top of a hill — likened to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem  

- square dome unit is characteristic of Ottoman architecture  

- also seen in Brunelleschi’s work in Florence 

- the series of domes culminates in the center  

- 4 massive piers at the center support the domes  

- 2 half domes on either side help transfer the weight down  

- domes on pendentives — Byzantine architecture 

- courtyard has monolithic columns with muqarnas capitals and vaults  

- longitudinal plan with a centralized core 

- ablaq masonry distinguishes different elements in the building  

A. da Sangallo and Michelangelo, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy — 1517-46

- urban palace — display of wealth  

- takes up a whole city block 

- similar to Palazzo Medici in Florence  

- 3-storied tiered facade  

- corner articulations — quoins  

- cornice designed by Michelangelo is very decorative  

- sculpture, lions, masks at the top  

- references to antiquity  

- interior vestibule is in the form of a basilica with spolia columns and barrel vaults  

- square courtyard is framed by a colonnade on all sides  

- Doric columns on first level, Ionic on second, Corinthian on third  

- more sculptural decoration on the top level  

Michelangelo, Campidoglio, Rome, Italy — 1537

- seat of civic government 

- buildings were initially on an unpaved hill  

- pattern on paved courtyard moves away from a perfect circle — sense of axiality  

- built a new palace to balance the composition and shape the space  

- statue of Constantine at the center of the oval pattern 

- Conservator’s Palace gets the same facade treatment as the Senator’s Palace  

- giant-order palasters — regularity, classical language  

- tower moved to the center of the Senator’s Palace 

- reasserting papal authority over Rome  

Peruzzi, Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy — 1506-11

- built for the wealthiest banker in Rome 

- the front side is very closed off and formal 

- the back side is more informal — garden — main entrance  

- often hosted the Pope 

- Sala delle Prospettive 

- long rectangular room 

- ancient classical architecture painted on the walls with ‘views’ out above the city  

- a garden loggia brings the countryside in 

Bramante, initial plan, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy — 1506

- Greek cross plan with semicircular apses on each end  

- dome in the center, 5 domes total in the square plan  

- directly inspired by the Pantheon and the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine  

- combines centralized and longitudinal plans

7

Michelangelo, built plan and dome, St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy — 1546

- enlarges the crossing piers  

- creates a square ambulatory around the perimeter  

- triple height giant-order palasters on the exterior  

- dome inspired by the Duomo in Florence  

- elevated drum 

- multiple shells  

Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, Italy — 1566

- built for a retired senior member of the church  

- revitalizes ancient forms for the residential structure  

- 4 porches with temple fronts  

- fronted by an ionic colonnade 

- topped by a dome  

- centralized and symmetrical  

- cubic volume with rooms on each corner 

- described as a ‘machine for viewing the landscape’ 

Maydan, Isfahan, Iran — early 17th century  

- focal point of the mosque 

- bounded by a 2-story arcade  

- ceremonial space  

Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran — 1088, 16th century  

- plan expanded over time 

- irregular building form 

- hypostyle mosque at the core  

- muqarnas domes 

- tall round piers hold up pointed arches  

- herringbone brickwork in the vaults  

- central courtyard surrounded by 4 iwans 

- expands into domed prayer halls  

- pishtaq facade — iwan with 2 tall minarets  

- 476 vaulted spaces  

- south (qibla) iwan 

- pishtaq facade marks the direction of prayer  

- northern dome 

- all made of brick 

- low-relief blind arcades below the drum  

- structure starts to dissolve 

- muqarnas, layering 

- spiritual transcendence  

Palace Complex, Fatehpur, Sikri, India — 1570s

- administrative center of the Mughal Empire  

- comparable to the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul 

- pools, audience hall 

- Diwan-i-Khas 

- place to meet the ruler 

- multistory square structure  

- domes raised up on thin pillars on each corner on top  

- second level  

- imperial level, place for the ruler to sit, look down and see his subjects

8

Taj Mahal, Agra, India — 1632-52

- for the Mughal Emperor, Shah Jahan, as a monument for his wife 

- brings together Persian, Turkish, Timurid, and Islamic architecture  

- gateway 

- red sandstone with white marble 

- has towers similar to a pishtaq facade  

- plan divided into 4 squares — iwan forms  

- waterways intersect in the center  

- gardens  

- planting beds and water = Qur’anic idea of paradise  

- similar to the Court of the Lions at the Alhambra  

- tomb  

- set within a bounded zone marked by 4 towers 

- distinctive Persian dome on top of a very tall drum  

- framed by a mosque and a meeting house  

- symmetrical forms made of red sandstone and white marble  

- 4-iwan plan — octagonal form  

- series of passageways on diagonals and an ambulatory around them  

- delicate screen around the interior moderates the amount of light coming in  

Vignola and della Porta, Church of Il Gèsu, Rome Italy — 1568-84

- marked the emergence of the Jesuits and counterreformation  

- Latin cross plan with a very wide nave and barrel vault  

- side chapels rather than aisles carved out of thick walls  

- dome over the crossing of the nave and transept  

- windows at the base of the barrel vault and dome — very well lit  

- facade  

- simliar to Alberti’s S. Maria Novella  

- entablature below the attic zone 

- palasters on the bottom 

- volute forms on either side of the attic space  

- emphasis on the central portal  

- columns increase in 3-dimensionality toward the center framing the portal  

Sixtus V Plan for Rome, Italy — 1585-90

- very straight diagonal streets link key points of interest 

- link the principle pilgrimage churches 

- adds 4 Egyptian obelisks to mark key points  

- similar to Michelangelo’s Campidoglio ideas  

Bernini, Piazza S. Pietro, Rome, Italy — 1656

- links the city to the church  

- immense oval enclosure with a central obelisk  

- oval = directionality, short axis draws you in 

- bounded by colonnades — huge Doric columns  

- fountains on either side of the obelisk  

Bernini, S. Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, Italy — 1658-70

- distinct facade  

- single temple-fronted bay pushing out toward the street 

- giant-order palasters support the pediment  

- oval plan church  

- altar is on the short axis  

- similar to the Pantheon — 8 chapel spaces alternating in form  

- full visual experience — architecture, sculpture, light  

- topped by a dome with a lantern — golden light coming in

9

Borromini, S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, Italy — 1638-39; facade — 1665

- facade  

- 2 stories with fully 3-dimensional columns  

- undulating entablature  

- sculptural cornice line  

- oval plan with undulating walls 

- shifts in curves are marked by columns  

- altar is on the long axis  

- almost entirely white interior  

- undulation dissolves into a continuous oval dome with a lantern on top 

Chateau du Chambord, Chambord, France — 1519-47

- built by the king as a royal hunting lodge  

- fortified tower with 4 turrets 

- centralized plan  

- double spiral stair 

- reminiscent of Italian design  

- surrounded by a walled compound  

- 5-part facade — Medieval and classical elements  

Place Royal (Place des Vosges), Paris, France — 1606-12

- square plan with housing around the perimeter  

- wide open regularized space  

- brick housing punctuated with white stone  

- 2-story housing with 3-story pavilions at the end of the axes  

- ground level arcade  

- intended as middle class housing but became housing for the Parisian aristocracy  

C. Perrault and others, East facade of the Louvre Palace, Paris, France — 1667-70

- flat roof hidden by a prominent entablature  

- 5-part facade  

- freestanding Corinthian columns  

- structural, not just decorative  

- pavilions with paired palasters at the corners  

- rational expression of structure  

LeVau, Mansart, Le Notre, Chateau and Gardens of Versailles, France — 1660-80

- for King Louis XIV 

- creation of a royal ‘town’ at Versailles 

- similar plan to Sixtus V’s plan of Rome  

- the chateau symbolizes control over the country 

- elongated courtyard leads to a marble court in the center  

- Hall of Mirrors 

- royal reception room 

- huge arched windows on one side, floor to ceiling mirrors on the other side 

- facade 

- Italian influence  

- flat roof, rusticated arcade  

- carefully controlled planted gardens  

- made to seem infinite  

- fountains and waterways 

Himeji Castle, outside Kobe, Japan — 1610

- known as the ‘white heron’ — distinctive white plaster walls  

- wood construction 

- circuitous entry route with 14 gates  

- 5 stories with distinctive upturned gables

10

Ninomaru Palace, Nijo Castle, Kyoto, Japan — 1610-26 - double-walled compound with moats - similar to Angkor Wat - arrangement of 5 separate reception halls - from public to increasingly private spaces - ‘flying geese’ formation - bracketed wooden structure - upturned eaves - middle pavilion designed to receive the emperor  

Robert Smythson, Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, England — 1590 - built for Bess of Hardwick - designed to impress and entertain the Queen - 3 story stone house - expansive windows — show of wealth - loggia — columnar entry porch - Italian-style horizontal divisions - verticality — gothic architecture - English perpendicular style - fully symmetrical plan organized around a great hall - third story long gallery for viewing the countryside  

Inigo Jones, Queen’s House, Greenwich, England — 1616-35 - finished for Queen Henrietta Maria, wife of King Charles I - H-shaped plan — Italian origin - solid 2-story block - double-height cubic hall inside - borrows ideas from Palladio in Venice - proportional relationships - classical style - horizontality of the facade — opposite of gothic verticality - central bay projects slightly outward - loggia front  

Christopher Wren, Plan to rebuild London, England — 1666 - never executed but still influential - designed 51 parish churches that were rebuilt - church as the focal point within a neighborhood - radiating street patterns - similar to Sixtus V’s plan for Rome and Versailles  

Christopher Wren, St. Stephen Walbrook, London, England — 1672-80 - tower with a spire is a marker within the dense urban fabric - dome rests on 12 columns radiating out from the interior core - columns topped by squinches — Byzantine  

Christopher Wren, St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, England — 1680-1710 - elongated nave with a centralized core - Latin cross with very pronounced transepts - almost becomes a Greek cross plan - compared to St. Peter’s in Rome - St. Peter’s — dome supported by 4 massive piers - St. Paul’s — fragmented piers allow for movement through the space - French influence - 3-part dome - paired columns in the entry portico

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