Exam 2 SG Intro Nutrition
Each lecture topic is indicated in bold and underlined. The questions, provided with the quick answer for easy memorization, relates to each lecture. This covers everything that was discussed in the lectures
1.Name 6 functions of protein.
1)Enzymes 2)hormones 3)immune function 4)transport 5)structure 6)energy (4cal/gram)
2.Recognize examples of hormones and enzymes.
enzyme: protease, hormone: steroid/growth hormone
3.Describe protein needs.
RDA: .8 g/kg of body weight
4.Name protein foods.
meat, poultry, fish, dairy, beans/legumes, nuts & seeds
5.Define the chemical difference between proteins versus carbohydrates and lipids. proteins contain nitrogen
6.Discuss the 5-step process of protein formation from DNA.
1) DNA splits apart 2) RNA polymerase transcribes ripped DNA (mRNA) 3) mRNA leaves nucleus 4) tRNA matches mRNA 5) Amino acids bound into a chain
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7.Define protein denaturation, and list the 2 ways this is done in cooking or digestion.
heat/acid unfold tightly bound proteins in food. Proteases breaks apart protein in stomach
8.Describe how excess protein is used for energy, including deamination, utilization of carbon skeletons for energy or fat production, and creation of ammonia. liver deaminates excess amino acids, carbon skeletons used for energy, liver produces ammonia and turns it into urea to be excreted by kidneys(toxic)
9.Identify which 2 organs may be damaged by overconsumption of protein. liver and kidneys
1.Contrast essential and nonessential amino acids.
essential must be provided in diet, nonessential are produced in the body
2.Categorize food proteins as complete or incomplete.
complete: All animal proteins, soy, incomplete: grains/nuts/seeds, legumes
3.Identify the lacking amino acid in grains, nuts, seeds, and legumes. grains/nuts/seeds (lack lysine), legumes (lack methionine)
4.Create a menu including complementary proteins.
tortilla & beans, peanut butter sandwiches Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three facts about tectonic plates?
5.Discuss 4 reasons to choose vegetarianism.
religion, ethics, sustainability, health
6.Name foods excluded from the diets of 5 types of vegetarians. Pesco: no meat/poultry, Lacto-ovo: no meat/poultry/fish, Ovo: no meat/poutry/fish/dairy, Lacto: no meat/poultry/fish/eggs, Vegan: no meat/poutry/fish/dairy/egg
7.List 5 vitamin and mineral deficiencies associated with vegan diets and name foods to supply these nutrients.
calcium & vitamin D: dairy, Vitamin B12: any animal food, Zinc: fortified cereals, beans, Iron: cereals/beans/seeds
1. Name 4 metabolic changes caused by training.
1) Creates more muscle through damage and repair, 2) increases cell’s ability to store energy, 3) Uses energy more efficiently, 4) decreases the use of glycogen.
2. Know the AND/ACSM recommendations for protein intake for athletes. 1.2-2.0 grams/kg depending on exercise
3. Argue against excess protein intake.
extra protein does not build more muscle, it is converted to energy and if not needed, converted to fat. More likely to become dehydrated because the kidneys are excreting the urea made from the liver (made from excess protein) If you want to learn more check out How are proteins transported in the body?
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4. Know if carbohydrate loading helps improve performance or not. it helps because it fills glycogen stores
5. Discuss the metabolic reason for warming up before a workout. a slow start ends up burning fat rather than glycogen stores We also discuss several other topics like who are the twin sons or Mars?
6. Know how athletes can estimate their fluid losses during a workout. 2 cups or one pint of water equals a pound. They weigh themselves before and after to see how much weight (and in turn, water) they have lost. Don't forget about the age old question of What bases make up DNA and RNA?
7. Know how much water an athlete needs to consume (amount per 15 minutes) during a workout.
8. List 4 symptoms of dehydration.
1) Dark urine, 2) fatigue, 3) Headaches, 4)Lack of energy
9. Know why thirst is not a good indicator for dehydration.
Thirst is stimulated only after dehydration has begun
10. Name the 3 components of sports drinks
1) fluid retention and thirst, 2) Sodium and potassium replace sweat losses, 3) CHO provide energy and replace glycogen
11. Know which athletes/activities would benefit from sports drinks. activities lasting longer than an hour with high intensity
12. Plan a pre-exercise meal that will not cause GI distress. high carb, low fat and fiber -> small
13. Describe 6 metabolic, cardiac, and respiratory changes during the “steady state.” fat is being converted to energy to preserve glycogen, heart rate increase to deliver more oxygen, diaphragm forcefully removes air
14. Name at least 3 factors that cause fatigue during exercise.
1) glycogen is depleted, 2) hypoglycemia, hypoxia, inadequate blood flow, 3) psychological
15. Define water intoxication.
Occurs when no electrolytes are replaced and water moves into cells quickly, causing swelling.
16. Plan an appropriate post-exercise meal/snack for glycogen and protein repletion. Chocolate milk (CHO, high GI, little protein)
Energy and body composition:
1. Name the 1 source of energy intake and the 3 ways energy is expended. Energy intake: food consumption, outtake: Basil Metabolic Rate, thermal effect on food, and physical activity.
2. Define basal metabolic rate, its relative contribution to energy expenditure, and 9 ways that BMR changes.
Basic organ function to stay alive (60-70% of expenditure) Changed by: Muscle mass, Body surface area, Male gender, Body temperature, Stage of growth (“growth spurt”), Caffeine and tobacco, Thyroid function (caution), Recent exercise, Younger age
3. Define the thermic effect of food, its relative contribution to energy expenditure, and 1 way that it can change.
Calories burned from food consumption (5-10% of expenditure). Changed by: the number of calories consumed
4. Define physical activity and its relative contribution to energy expenditure. Variable, exercise v. non exercise (20-40% of expenditure)
5. Differentiate between exercise and non-exercise.
exercise: conscious decision, non-exercise: everyday movements
6. Define the set-point theory and describe how it relates to someone who is trying to gain or lose weight.
The body is trying to maintain its weight. If the body is being overfed -> it will reduce its appetite. If it is not being fed, appetite increases.
7. List the 4 components of body composition.
Water, protein, fat, minerals/bones
8 .Contrast subcutaneous with visceral fat, and understand why visceral fat is more detrimental.
Sub: fat underlying the skin (insulation), visc: fat surrounding organs. Visceral can cause damage to organs.
9. Accurately define obesity.
10. Name 5 methods of measuring body composition.
Waist-to-hip ratio, BMI (measures ALL weight), skinfold thickness (subcutaneous measurement), Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA- electrical current), and bod pod (air displacement)
Protein malnutrition and eating disorders:
1. Define nitrogen balance.
Nitrogen intake vs. nitrogen out take: intake with protein, out take with urine
2. List conditions where a person may be in positive nitrogen balance: growth in children, weight gain, and pregnancy. Negative nitrogen balance: injury/illness, starvation
3. Compare and contrast kwashiorkor versus marasmus.
Kwa: swelling and infection occur, high need for protein unmet, mara: starvation, loss of protein and body fat
4. Name 1 nutritional intervention implemented for treatment of kwashiorkor and marasmus.
Peanut butter with powdered milk and honey
5. Identify characteristics, major warning signs, and effects of anorexia nervosa: fear of gaining weight, dramatic weight loss, preoccupied with food/weight Bulimia nervosa: Binge/purge cycle, laxative use and food wrappers Binge eating disorder: uncontrolled overeating, unhappy view of self-image
Pregorexia: controlling weight while pregnant,
Orthorexia: extreme healthy obsession
Muscle dysmorphia: obsession with food that builds muscle
6. Discuss necessary treatment of eating disorders.
Fix the nutrition deficiencies, practice normal eating habits, psychological therapy if severe
7. List 2 ways to get help for someone who might have an eating disorder. Call Goddard (dietician and counseling services)! Oklahoma Eating Disorders Association
1. Discuss the historical significance of the Minnesota Starvation study. It was after WW2 to learn about the effects of starvation in order to aid those in Europe who endured starvation.
2. Recall what happens after you eat a meal: the 3 ways glucose is used and how protein is used.
glucose is used for energy then, refuels glycogen stores, then stored as fat protein used to rebuild muscle
3. Name the 2 major metabolic processes associated with early stages of starvation.
glycogen is broken down, gluconeogenesis: amino acids converted to glucose
4. List the 3 major metabolic effects of extended starvation.
ketosis is created to preserve muscle mass, mental abilities slow, body fat and protein are lost
5. Discuss the most surprising (for the Minnesota researchers) effect of starvation. the psychological effects of avoidance of excess work, apathy, extreme anger, and food rituals had the most lasting impact on the participants and surprised the researchers
6. Name the 1 way that the men were able to gain weight during the rehabilitation phase.
they were only able to gain weight when they were unrestricted (10,000-12,000 calories daily).
1. List 6 health consequences related to obesity.
Heart disease, diabetes, cancer, Arthritis, lower quality of life, mortality
2. Describe how genetics can contribute to a tendency toward overweight or obesity.
BMR, appetite, single genes (rare)
3. Discuss the effect of large portion sizes on consumption.
Children learn to eat more due to external cues, 25% more
4. Name eating occasions and describe their effect on calorie intake. Eating opportunities increasing, consume 400 kcal extra daily
5. Identify how marketing to children can affect food preferences. Mascots for unhealthy food products provide “warm, fuzzy” feeling within children, more consumption after viewing ad
6. Describe the relationship between education/income and obesity rates, and name public health efforts to reduce the effect of this relationship.
Lower education = higher obesity, no gov. aid to farmers (healthy food more expensive), tax unhealthy foods, SNAP, WIC, and SNAP ed
7. Give tips on how to eat healthy while on a budget.
plan ahead, take inventory, look for deals on healthy food before shopping, buy in season produce, don’t shop hungry
8. Describe the effect of a social network on weight loss efforts. social networks is your everyday life, difficult to change group mentality in the efforts to lose weight