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USC - BIOL 303 - Class Notes - Week 9

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USC - BIOL 303 - Class Notes - Week 9

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamental Genetics
Professor: Waldman
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Bio 303, Week 9 Notes
Description: These are detailed notes for Ch.12. They not only cover the power-points but also what the professor says.
Uploaded: 03/11/2018
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background image Bio 303 Ch.12 Lecture Notes By: Chandini Patel Ch.12: DNA Organization in Chromosomes DNA in bacteria and viruses are more simple than that in Eukaryotes Bacteria DNA is circular DNA is not randomly shoved in the a small space; there is an organization to it.  Supercoiling helps DNA fit in its designated space within bacteria and 
virus cells.
L = the linking number The underwound circular DNA phase is not favorable b/c the unwound 
complementary strands want to come together and that is why it becomes 
supercoiled.  L= T + W o T= turns of the helix o W= supercoils o For part (d) of the image there are 2 supercoils b/c the equation is  18= 20 – W. W therefore will be = to ­2.  Topoisomerases can change the linking number of DNA and therefore 
control supercoiling. 
Chromatins are made up of proteins and DNA. 
background image Histones: Histones and non­histones are involved in DNA Histones are small proteins that are rich in basic amino acids Inside a nucleosome there are 8 core histones: 2 of each of H2A, H2B, 
H3, and H4. This forms an octamer. 
Histones can be modified by acetyl, methyl, or phosphate groups. For 
that reason, the ends of histones don’t have that much structure so it be 
modified. 
Heterochromatin­ highly condensed DNA that doesn’t allow for the expression
of genes
Euchromatin­ the opposite of heterochromatin in that is loose DNA that allows
for the expression of genes. 
Chromosomes are treated certain ways to result in bands on the chromosomes. 
The bands show the differences within chromosomes. 
G­banding is the standard way of staining chromosomes.  Repetitive DNA:

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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Biology
Course: Fundamental Genetics
Professor: Waldman
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Bio 303, Week 9 Notes
Description: These are detailed notes for Ch.12. They not only cover the power-points but also what the professor says.
Uploaded: 03/11/2018
4 Pages 11 Views 8 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
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