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UOttawa - PSY 2301 - Class Notes - Week 8

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UOttawa - PSY 2301 - Class Notes - Week 8

School: The University of Ottawa
Department: OTHER
Course: Biological Foundations of Behaviour
Professor: Patrick Davidson
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology and Biological Psychology
Name: PSY 2301 Class notes Mar 07.
Description: These are the notes taken in class on March 07th. The last of the notes for the second midterm.
Uploaded: 03/11/2018
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background image How do Drugs and Hormones Influence the Brain and Behaviour?  - Depression (and Drugs)   
Outline: 
- Treatment of Psychological and Psychiatric Disorders  - Depression   - Drug Abuse   
Treatment 
- It is difficult to develop effective treatments of behavioural disorders because this 
requires knowing the cause of the disorder, which is rarely the case 
- Four main types of treatments  - Neurosurgical (lesion)  - Pharmacological  - Electrophysiological  - Behavioural   Different treatments are more or less effective for different disorders 
 
  Schizophrenia  Major Depression  Neurosurgical  Not really  Possibly (last resort)  Pharmacological  Yes  Yes  Electrophysiological  Not really  Yes (ECT and DBS; last 
resort) 
Behavioural  Somewhat  Yes   
Frontal Lobotomy  
- Lesioning of white matter connection frontal to lower brain regions  - Inspired by studies of behavioural changes in monkeys after frontal lobe lesions  - Pioneered through animal experimentation  - Thousands performed from 1930s to mid 1950s, for various disorders  - Until chlorpromazine for schizophrenia  - Pharmacological developments lessened lobotomy   - Successful?  - Side effects  - Blunting of all emotions, not just pathological ones  - Decreased responsibility, “childishness” 
background image - Difficulty carrying out plans, taking care of selves, working   - Still performed today  - Epilepsy, OCD and Depression   - Selective (frontal white matter or cingulate)  - Last Resort!!!   
Major Depression 
- Mood disorder characterised by   - Prolonged feelings of worthlessness and guilt  - Disruption of normal eating habits  - Sleep disturbances  - General slowing of behaviour  - Frequent thoughts of suicide  - Common  - One of the most common psychiatric disorders   Major depression versus…  - Bipolar disorder  - “Manic depression”  - Mood disorders  - Alternating periods of depression and mania  - Mania: Excessive, unjustified euphoria  - Feeling low/normal sadness  - Where’s the line? Same brain mechanisms?  Classification of Psychoactive Drugs  - Antidepressants  - Three classes of Antidepressants  - Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) Inhibitors  - Block the enzyme MAO from degrading neurotransmitters 
such as dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin 
- Tricyclic Antidepressants  - First-generation antidepressants with a chemical structure 
characterized by three rings that block serotonin reuptake 
transporter proteins 
- Second-Generation Antidepressants  - Action is similar to first-generation antidepressants, but is 
more selective in its action on the serotonin reuptake 
transporter proteins; also called atypical antidepressants 
- Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 
background image - Block the reuptake of serotonin into the 
presynaptic terminal 
- Reasonably selective to serotonin synapse     
Remember, neurotransmitters should be at the *right* level  
- Too much can be as bad as too little   - Goldilocks effect   Beyond 5-HT  - Neurobiology   - Antidepressant drugs act to increase levels of norepinephrine and 
serotonin 
- There is little evidence; however, that low levels of these 
neurotransmitters cause depression 
- Lowering levels of these neurotransmitters in normal people does 
not produce depression 
- Although antidepressants affect synapses very quickly, their 
antidepressive actions take weeks to develop 

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School: The University of Ottawa
Department: OTHER
Course: Biological Foundations of Behaviour
Professor: Patrick Davidson
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Psychology and Biological Psychology
Name: PSY 2301 Class notes Mar 07.
Description: These are the notes taken in class on March 07th. The last of the notes for the second midterm.
Uploaded: 03/11/2018
10 Pages 21 Views 16 Unlocks
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  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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