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BIO 251 - Class Notes - Week 9

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BIO 251 - Class Notes - Week 9

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background image Microbiology Week 9 Notes Gram Negative Rods (continued from week 8) 3/5/18 I.               Genus Vibrio  Halophiles from contaminated food  3 major pathogens A.  V. cholerae  Epidemic cholera  Marine environment  Seafood  Pathogen is common after natural disasters in developing countries  Two groups:
1.   Epidemic Strains
Serotypes 01 and 0139  Produce cholera toxin that converts ATP into cAMP in the 
intestinal cells that result in a hypersecretion of fluids and 
electrolytes
 Causes rapid onset diarrhea  Treated with replacement of fluids by the gallon via oral 
rehydration salts
 Antibiotics only prevent spread  Mortality rate is 60% if untreated 2.   Non­01 strains Do not produce toxins Cause symptoms that mimic salmonella Treat by replacing fluids B. V. parahaemolyticus Pathogen usually from raw seafood or sushi Most common cause of food poisoning in Japan Symptoms similar to salmonella Causes diarrhea with an uneventful recovery No vaccine C. V. vulnificus Normal flora of marine waters; sporadic in the Gulf of Mexico Niche pathogen: raw oysters Most common cause of fatal food poisoning in Florida
1. First form
Healthy adults may get a salmonella­like syndrome (diarrhea) High risk in those with liver disease, diabetes, cancer, renal 
disease or AIDs 
background image GI infection may progress quickly to septicemia (50% fatality 
rate)
Requires immediate antibiotic therapy with no time to wait on 
a positive culture
No vaccine, only prevention 2. Second form Wound infections and septicemia after trauma Normal in fishermen who have been hooked Causes a skin infection II.                Campylobacter jejuni Most common food poisoning agent in U.S. Difficult to culture Micro­aerophile Highest risk foods: poultry, especially ground turkey Mimics salmonella: sporadic diarrhea for a week III.               Helicobacter pylori Cause of most gastric ulcers Fecal/ oral spread Virulence factor: survives stomach acid by breaking down urea to ammonia; 
neutralyzes the acid
Attacks the stomach lining New treatment is the give Prilosec (an acid blocker) to help with pain and an 
antibiotic to knock out the bacteria
IV.              Genus Rickettsia and Relatives Gram negative rods Hardly ever cultured; identified by antibodies Several species Transmitted by arthropod bites Source: rodents, small mammals, other humans Cause fever, rash, headache Up to 20% mortality rate if untreated Treated with doxycycline
A. R. prowazekii
Epidemic typhus Likely to be fatal Causes fever, headache, whole body rash Seen after natural disasters and war from crowds and poor 
sanitation
Vector: body lice Strictly human disease B. R. typhi
background image Murine (mouse) typhus Common in Southeast U.S. Derived from mice and rat fleas C. R. rickettsii Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Southeast U.S. Tick­borne Causes a high fever and spotty rash Tick has to stay on for extended period of time D. Orientia tsutsugamushi Scrub typhus From bite of mite Causes a sore that turns into a systemic disease Found in Asia V.                Erlichia and Anaplasma species A. Both Tick­derived Disease of leukocytes Treated with doxycycline More likely to be fatal in the elderly B. Erlichia Monocytic and granulocytic forms Derived from the Lonestar tick C. Anaplasma Found in Northern states 3/7/18 VI.              Bartonella Henselae Cat scratch fever Over 25,000 cases a year in the U.S. Normal cat flora 80% of cases in children 2­14 VII.             Chlamydia trachomatis Several disease states
A. Trachoma
Common in Asia, Africa, middle east Most common cause of blindness in those areas Gets into the cornea and sears it Transmitted by flies Strictly­human disease

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School: Mississippi College
Department: OTHER
Course: Microbiology
Professor: Joe Graves
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Name: Microbiology Week 9 Notes
Description: Cover lecture notes that prepare for exam 4
Uploaded: 03/11/2018
8 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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