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MGU - PSYC 213 - Class Notes - Week 6

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MGU - PSYC 213 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image Imagery definition  •  Mental image when you think about something. Can be visual, auditory, even tactile,  pain, etc.  i.e. Having a song stuck in your head, picturing a beautiful scenery from a trip, 
etc. 
 
Creating imagery 
•  Dual-coding theory  Breaking down the mental representation of events into 2 categories, verbal and 
non-verbal, that can act in a separate or interactive fashion (i.e. someone is 
talking to you, and you are breaking down their words into “logogens”, which are 
the basic components of verbal imagery) 
▪  Basic units:   •  Verbal  logogens 
•  Nonverbal  imagens 
Evidence:  ▪  Participants are given pairs of words  •  The words can be either concrete (i.e. “chair”  easy to find  verbal or non-verbal imagery or abstract (i.e. “idea”  harder to 
find imagery that represents this word) 
▪  Participants are tested on how well they could recall one word when 
presented with its pair 
▪  Results: Participants remembered the concrete words better because it 
was easier to think of both verbal and nonverbal associations to that 
word (recruiting both verbal and nonverbal systems makes it easier to 
remember) 
You would expect that the left hemisphere of the brain to be involved in the 
verbal components of mental imagery, while the right hemisphere should be 
involved in nonverbal components of mental imagery 
Study: Right hemisphere is activated in a different pattern of activation than the 
left hemisphere for abstract and concrete words (not necessarily more activation 
in the right hemisphere for abstract words) 
 
Vividness of imagery 
•  How similar is your mental image to that which it’s representing? 
•  Varies across individuals and contexts 
i.e. familiarity and expertise can influence how vivid your imagery is  Familiarity: Some people are more familiar with certain mental images than 
others (i.e. professional soccer player can picture a soccer field more vividly than 
a farmer who doesn’t play soccer) 
Expertise: Musicians seem to hear musical imagery more often than non-
musicians 
•  What about memory? 
background image High ratings of vividness don’t necessarily lead to better memory performance  i.e. flashbulb memories, eyewitness accounts (they might remember something 
with great vividness, but it might not be more accurate) 
 
 
Using imagery to aid memory 
•  Imagery as a mnemonic technique  Method of Loci  ▪  Place objects in an unexpected room  ▪  This makes the objects distinct, bizarre, or humourous among common 
items 
•  Known as the von Restorff effect  Special places strategy  ▪  You often think to hide an item you want to keep secure in an 
unexpected place 
•  But we often forget where we put it  ▪  Not as effective as the Method of Loci, because in the Method of Loci you 
go from a common location to a distinct object (using location as cue for 
object), whereas in the special places strategy you go from a distinct 
object to a location (no cue from object to reveal location) 
•  Imagery for musicians  Normal performance feedback: Play normally through the piece of music  Motor-only performance feedback: Play through the piece of music without 
hearing it, only imagining what it sounds like 
Auditory-only performance feedback: Hear the piece of music, imagine what the 
movements feel like 
No performance feedback: Imagine what the piece of music sounds like and 
what the movements feel like 
Results:  ▪  Taking away motor, auditory, or all feedback reduces the musicians’ 
ability to recall the music 
▪  Musicians with low auditory imagery ability have especially pronounced 
reduction in recall in the motor-only feedback condition 
▪  Musicians with high auditory imagery ability can compensate for the loss 
of auditory feedback using the motor feedback to perform almost as well 
as in normal conditions 
 
Manipulating imagery 
•  Mental rotation: rotating an image/object in space  People are quite accurate in identifying whether 2 objects are the same 
(presented at different orientations, so you must mentally rotate them) 
People take longer to perform mental rotations the farther the object must be 
rotated (high degree of rotation) 

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School: McGill University
Department: OTHER
Course: Cognition
Professor: Signy Sheldon
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: PSYC 213 Imagery
Description: These notes cover the lecture and textbook material from Chapter 8 Imagery
Uploaded: 03/12/2018
4 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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