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UB / Psychology / PSY 101 / What is the idea that objects exist even when they are not visible?

What is the idea that objects exist even when they are not visible?

What is the idea that objects exist even when they are not visible?


School: University at Buffalo
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Shira gabriel klaiman
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: learning, sensation and perception, and development
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology 101, Exam 2 study guide
Description: Study guide for Exam 2 in Psychology 101 with Professor Poullin.
Uploaded: 03/12/2018
9 Pages 3 Views 9 Unlocks

Psychology 101: Exam 2 Study Guide

What is the idea that objects exist even when they are not visible?

Developmental Psychology

➔ Study of how people change over time in physical, cognitive and social aspects ➔ Maturation: Biological growth across life span which is programmed in brain ➔ Humans are born with all the neurons they will have in their life however the connections in the brain (between neurons) get denser throughout life

Cognitive Development- Childhood

➔ Cognition: mental information processing/ thinking

➔ How we are able to think develops across our childhood

Jean Piaget(1896-1980) 

➔ Worked as biologist and boys school teacher

➔ He administered intelligence tests and observed trends

➔ Students got answers wrong in specific ways depending on age (ex, aged 4 students would all get similar wrong answers while age 10 would all get similar wrong answers) ➔ Showed that there are differences in cognitive development between ages

What deals with selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory information ?

➔ Children of different ages have characteristic deficit in thinking

➔ He created the steps of complex cognition and stages of cognitive development Steps of Complex Cognition 

1. Ability to represent objects that aren't there (imagine a car in your mind)

2. Think logically about how concrete objects interact (imagine a car crashing into a tree) 3. Represent abstraction (think of ideas such as justice, velocity, mass)

Stages of Cognitive Development 

1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 2 years)

a. Categorized by absence of all the steps of complex cognition

b. Gain skills to do motor skills based on sensations (pick up a toy)

c. Disconnect between intentions and actions (may want to pick up a toy but drops it)

d. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter associated with learning and pleasure. It plays an important role in babies because they feel pleasure when they succeed in learning something (Yay! I picked up the toy!)

What is the study of how people change over time in physical, cognitive and social aspects?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of data?

e. Object permanence- idea that objects exist even when they are not visible. For example a person is still there even if they hide their face when playing

Peek-a-Boo. This idea is not in place before 8 months however babies start to

realize object permanence around 8 months.

2. Preoperational Stage (age 2 yrs. to 6/7 yrs.)

a. Categorized by presence of step 1 of complex cognition however absence of steps 2, 3

b. How do things interact? / vivid imagination

c. Unable to see conservation of properties: the principle that properties of objects persist across situations (ex. A certain volume of water is still that volume in

another cup)

d. Egocentric: focus on own perspective- everyone is sensing the same things you are

3. Concrete Operational Stage (ages 6/7 yrs to 11/12 yrs) If you want to learn more check out what is economic agent?

a. Categorized by presence of steps 1,2 of complex cognition but absence of step 3 b. Can think logically about objects and their properties even when not in front of them

c. However still cannot fully understand abstractions (the “why?”)

4. Formal Operational Stage (12 yrs-onwards)

a. Able to learn algebra (variable x) at this age because able to think abstractly

➔ Schema: Internal(cognitive) representation of the world. Piaget’s process of developing and updating these internal representations or schemas are what represent the cognitive development WITHIN and BETWEEN the stages

◆ Assimilation: understanding new experience by fitting it into existing schemas “sees a bird and can label it as birds”

◆ Accommodation: Adjusting existing schemas to better reflect experience. “Penguins are birds as well even though they dont look like your typical definition of a bird’ ➔ Dementia is the loss of the ability to think abstractly, logically, or represent things in order ➔ Piaget was wrong in some aspects

◆ Cognitive steps do not develop fully in one stage before progressing to the next step, rather sometimes people can backslide even after learning a step (tired, hungry, moody, drunkenness, drugs can cause inability to think abstractly or forget other steps) If you want to learn more check out What is oligopoly?

◆ Stages are more overlapped rather than one after the other. However he was right that they develop in that order, more or less.

Physical Development- Adolescence

➔ Puberty: onset of capability to reproduce.

➔ Boys produce sperm, have changes in facial shape, body hair,and muscles

➔ Girls release eggs, widen hips, grow breasts

Cognitive Development- Adolescence

➔ Myelinated neurons are neurons that are partially covered in myelin which causes them to signal faster. Ex: a stub can take longer to send pain signals than a stab

➔ Myelination of neurons in the prefrontal cortex is not finished until late 20 yrs. ➔ May explain why teens are more prone to doing reckless things as the prefrontal cortex deals with future aspirations. If prefrontal cortex is slower than the parts of the brain that deal with wishes, desires then individuals would follow that myelinated, faster part and do reckless activities rather than listen to unmyelinated, slower prefrontal cortex We also discuss several other topics like What is the efficiency of OTEC?

Physical Development- Adulthood

Early Adulthood (25-45 yrs) 

➔ Few physical changes, mainly slower metabolism, decrease in physical strength/stamina ➔ women fertility starts to decline and as such women sex drive increase

Middle Adulthood(45-65 yrs) 

➔ Further decline in metabolism, strength, stamina

➔ Women experience menopause(end of releasing eggs. Lower estrogen levels, heat)

Late Adulthood (65+) 

➔ Physical decline at accelerated rate

➔ Perceptual activity (vision,hearing, smell, taste) in decline

➔ Weak immune system- cannot fight off cancer, flu, stress

Cognitive Development- Adulthood

Early and Middle Adulthood 

➔ Continue learning, developing schemas

Late Adulthood 

➔ Although one might expect that late adulthood is just a decline in cognitive function, it is represented by inclines in some areas and declines in others. We also discuss several other topics like The Sociological Imagination is what?

➔ There are two types of memory: recall memory and recognition memory.

◆ Recall memory: ability to remember new facts or events

◆ Recognition memory: ability to tell when one has seen information before

◆ Older adults have trouble with recall memory but not recognition memory

➔ There are two types of intelligence: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. ◆ Fluid intelligence- sheer processing speed in brain for new experiences/patterns ◆ Crystallized intelligence- ability to use information stored in memory/ learned knowledge and experience

◆ Older adults have slower fluid intelligence however no problem with crystallized intelligence because that have more experience/intelligence to draw on/use Don't forget about the age old question of What is Endotherm?

Social Development

➔ Changes in social relationships and interactions across a lifespan, influenced by physical changes Erik Erikson’s Stages of Social Development 

1. Trust vs. Mistrust (1rst yr of life)

a. Babies ask “will someone be there for me?” as they cannot do much on their own b. They are able to identify who is their primary caregiver and if their caregivers are good c. Babies prefer to look at faces and can only focus at 8-12 in distance which is the same distance from their face and someone holding them

d. Secure attachment: trusting in caregiver (about 60% of babies are securely attached) e. Insecure attachment: lack of trust in caregiver

f. Secure attachment is attained when physical needs(nourishment, shelter)are met, emotional needs(care when crying) are met, and physical touch is required

2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (ages 1-3 yrs)

a. Self awareness- Toddlers become aware that they are individuals, they are the object of attention in a mirror

b. start to feel emotional responsibility for their actions (shame/silence after doing something bad)

c. Mastery: wanting to accomplish things oneself (yay/prideful after good action) 3. Initiative vs Guilt (age 3-6 yrs)

a. Become aware of peers

b. Start and sustain social relationships through cooperation and sharing

c. Feel initiative if they are successful in forming relationship

d. Feel guilt if unsuccessful in forming relationship

4. Competence vs Inferiority (ages 6 yrs-puberty)

a. Able to understand own culture

b. Feel competent or inferior based on society ranked things such as


5. Identity vs Identity Diffusion (adolescents)

a. Who are you???

b. What collection of abilities/personalities define you?

c. Teens are trying to find their identity which is why they can try different identities (emo, jock)

d. If individuals do not form identity by late 20s/early 30s they can experience identity diffusion 

6. Intimacy vs Isolation (age 20 yrs to early 40 yrs)

a. Window to form lasting deep, intimate relationships with spouse or best friend b. Must be able to completely be yourself with them and have emotional attachments

7. Generativity vs Stagnation(40-60 yrs)

a. Stable identity/relationships

b. however must avoid stagnation: boredom or loss of purpose

c. Cultivates sense of generativity if able to make lasting difference in world through children work, mentoring,art

8. Ego Integrity vs Despair (late 60s to end of life)

a. “Have I lived a good life?” as there is not much time left to change anything b. Although one might expect old people are in despair, it has been shown that they have an increase in psychological well being

c. Cartesian states they feel the emotional rewards of limited time as they live life to the fullest. Older people are more inclined to ignore people they dislike and have good experiences with people they love

Sensation and Perception

➔ Sensation: Process of detecting external events (stimuli) and converting that information into neural signals (transduction) 

➔ Perception: occurs after sensation. Deals with selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory information

➔ Both Sensation and Perception are ACTIVE processes

◆ Bottom-up processing: separating sensory information into easily processable units (ex. Separating the capital letter “A” into 3 lines in our brain)

◆ Top-Down processing: use pre existing facts or knowledge to interpret incoming stimuli (ex. A a A a A a all represent same thing)

◆ Brain forms schema using bottom up processing to take stimuli apart and top down processing to assemble stimuli into things that are meaningful to us.

➔ Both Sensation and Perception are LIMITED

➔ Sensation is limited as there are many kinds of stimuli we cannot see, hear, smell. Some reasons include

◆ High Range ex. Dog whistles, ultraviolet colors

◆ Low Intensity ex. Small font, whispers

◆ Fast Duration ex. Brain cannot keep up with milliseconds between racers in Olympics must use instant replay and technology

➔ Perception is limited too.

◆ We can sense things without perceiving them/paying attention. Ex. How our tongues feel in our mouth, indistinct noises

◆ Perception is inherently selective so even when we think we are paying attention we may not see full situation as perception filters out irrelevant details.

◆ Inattentional blindness: not perceiving sensations that are not the focus of attention ◆ We can shift between tasks however we lose parts from each of them (driving and texting)


➔ Visual sensation starts at the retina which has rods and cones. When rods and cones are stimulated by light, they in turn stimulate nerves running along the optic nerve. The optic nerve transmits signals to thalamus which goes to the visual cortex

◆ Retina: back of eye which is covered with rods and cones

◆ Rods: cells that sense light/dark (90 million in each eye)

◆ Cones: cells that detect color- different wavelengths of light. (4.5 mill in each eye) ◆ Visual cortex located in occipital lobe in the back of the head

➔ Summary: light>retina(rods,cones)>optic nerve>thalamus>occipital lobe(visual cortex)

Visual Sensation 


➔ There are three cones in retina.

◆ Blue cones detect shortest wavelengths.

◆ Green Cones detect medium wavelengths

◆ Red cones detect longest wavelengths

➔ Use additive color mixing(overlap these wavelengths perceived by cones)to perceive any color.

➔ Also compared color we see to its opposite color to check

◆ Black/White Red/Green Blue/Yellow


➔ Lines, angles, curves

➔ bottom -up processing breaks apart visual field into distinct features

➔ Feature detectors: groups of neurons in visual cortex that respond to particular shapes or patterns. Specific neurons stimulated by specific features

Visual Perception 


➔ We can see THINGS or distinct forms not just one big, blob

➔ Rules our brain uses to decide if something is a form: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Connectedness


➔ Binocular depth cues: use information from both eyes to infer depth

◆ Retinal disparity: distance calculation based on different images to each eye. “The more an object moves when looking at it with only left or right eye, the

closer that object is”. Used in 3D movies

◆ Convergence Cue: how much your eyes need to turn(muscle movement) to see an object shows depth. “Less muscle movement, farther the object”

➔ Monocular depth cues: As binocular depth cues are not useful for single eyed people, 2D images, or very far objects, it is possible to use information using one eye to infer depth ◆ Relative size: “bigger objects are closer”

◆ Relative height: “higher objects are farther”

◆ Linear perspective: Parallel lines converge at a distance


➔ Evolutionary important to perceive if something is coming toward/away from you ➔ Use changes in size to determine motion “object gets bigger as it comes toward you” ➔ Also important to perceive things going side-to-side across field of vision. Inferred when

you see image of an object in one place and then you see image of object in another place milliseconds late. Ex. animation


➔ What is learning? Relatively permanent change in thought or behavior due to experience. Ex. studying, how to ride a bike, what clothes to wear to a place

➔ Association: Connecting events or facts that occurs in sequence

➔ Types of Association: Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning

Classical Conditioning 

➔ Classical Conditioning is Associating two stimuli

➔ Ivan Pavlov (1894-1936) 

◆ physiologist interested in chemical composition of saliva

◆ Put meat in front of dogs and collected saliva using tube

◆ However over time dogs salivated even when meat was not present

◆ Why? Pavlov used bell sounds before giving meat. In time the sound of bell was enough to cause salivation

◆ Stimulus can become attached to another stimulus

➔ Before conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus-UCS (meat) causes unconditioned response-UCR (drooling)

➔ During conditioning: providing neutral stimulus (bell) before UCS(meat0 will still cause UCR (drool)

➔ After conditioning: Neutral stimulus(bell) becomes a conditioned stimulus-CS which will lead to conditioned response- CR (drooling in the absence of meat)

➔ Classical Conditioning present in other animals, pets, and humans

➔ Used by advertisers in car ads: Sexy women(UCS) leads to target audiences natural feelings of desire (UCR) Paired with cars (NS) one can cause individuals to feel desire when looking at a car(CR)

➔ Other examples: Women/beer objects/money energy drink/adventure shoes/athleticism fashion/model beauty

➔ Use feelings of one stimulus to generate same feelings for another unrelated stimulus

Operant Conditioning 

➔ Operant conditioning is an association between a stimulus and a certain behavior ➔ Training animals by rewarding(encouraging certain responses) and punishing (discouraging a certain response)

➔ Edward Thorndike called this the “Law of Effect”

◆ Organism learn to repeat behaviors that have favorable outcomes, avoid those with unfavorable outcomes

◆ Scientists renamed principle to Operant Condition

➔ B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)

◆ Studied pigeons. Noticed they would peck certain bars if they were given food pellets as a reward.

◆ Rats would avoid steps if they were punished for doing so by electrocution

◆ Developed these behaviors further and trained pigeons to key songs on a keyboard ➔ Shaping- rewarding successive approximations(increasing complex behaviors) in order to get the desired, complex response

➔ Primary reinforcer/ punishment: use stimulus that is naturally pleasant (ex. yummy food) or naturally unpleasant(ex. physical pain)

➔ Conditioned reinforcer/punishment: stimulus that is only pleasant or unpleasant because of classical conditioning (ex. money)




Adding something

Positive reinforcement

Give a dog a treat

Positive Punishment

Hold muzzle


Taking something away

Negative Reinforcement

Take off irritating collar

Negative Punishment

Ignore (Take away interaction)

➔ Positive reinforcement/ negative reinforcement work the best as it encourages certain, specific behaviors rather than punishing a wide array of behaviors

➔ Reinforcement schedule: frequency of reinforcement

◆ In labs it is practical to reward animals every time they do action but not practical for pets.children

◆ Interval schedule: reinforcement given at time intervals (ex. Every 3 days of action) ◆ Ratio Schedule: reinforcement after specific # of responses (every 3 rollovers) ➔ Either work however ratio is better for continuity/prevent extinction as it is more unpredictable. Ex used in gambling, slot machines

➔ Extinction: when response stops because it is not awarded any longer (dog won't roll over if reward not given for long period)

➔ Behaviorism: behavior should be explained without using mental terms, processes as it is more scientific. However many things difficult to explain then....

◆ Latent learning: figuring out underlying pattern behind operant thinking

● If you train rat to use a route in a maze for a reward it will use a new path if it is opened. Don't just memorize path but rather generate mental map

◆ Overjustification effect: reinforcers can reduce motivation as it shows that a behavior is not inherently worthwhile and must be rewarded

● Paying students to learn would lead to worse grades if they are not paid

◆ Garcia effect: conditioning easiest when it makes biological sense

● When presented with novel tasting foods, flashing lights, and novel shaped foods, nauseous rats will more likely avoid novel tasting food than the others

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