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UCLA / Geography / GEOG 5 / How does carrying capacity affect logistic growth?

How does carrying capacity affect logistic growth?

How does carrying capacity affect logistic growth?


School: University of California - Los Angeles
Department: Geography
Course: People and the Earth's Ecosystem
Professor: Thomas gillespie
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: GreenRevolution, exponentialgrowth, Logistic growth, carrying capacity, environmentalresistance, neo-malthusians, technologicaloptimists, paulerlich, demographictransitionmodel, PopulationPyramids, Globalization, Hydrologic Cycle, Tragedy​ ​of​ ​the​ ​Commons, GDP, gpi, epi, kuznetscurve, Water, waterpollution, geneticmodifiedfoods, fooddeserts, agriculture, fisheries, aquaponics, Pollution, Greenhouse effect, negativefeedback, positivefeedback, Adaptation, and climatechange
Cost: 50
Name: Geo 5 final study guide
Description: These notes cover what's going to be on the next exam. It also includes some practice questions for the final.
Uploaded: 03/13/2018
14 Pages 240 Views 2 Unlocks

Geo 5 Final Study Guide 

How does carrying capacity affect logistic growth?

Describe exponential and logistic growth and some causes of overshoot 

∙ Exponential growth is growth as a percentage of a whole

­represented by a j curve 

­the larger population the faster it grows 

∙ Logistic growth occurs when the growth rate decreases as the population reaches carrying capacity 

­represented by S curve

­growth to a stable population or to carrying capacity

­carrying capacity K is the number of individuals an environment can support ­growth slows because of environmental resistance (ex. predators, disease, competitors, and  lack of food, water, and suitable habitat. They limit the number of individuals that survive) 

How do the cornucopians and neo malthusians differ in their viewpoints?

∙ Overshoot is when a population surpasses carrying capacity (k) of the environment ­can happen due to time lags in response to resource limitation and Environmental variability,  not consistent 

Growth rate

R=(b­d) + (i­e) 

(growth rate = (birth rate – Death rate) + (immigration rate – emigration rate)

Compare and Contrast the views of Neo­Malthusianism and technological optimists 

∙ Neo­Malthusianism believe we are approaching, or have already passed, the Earth’s  carrying capacity and We should make over­population issues our first priority because  there will soon be a population crash

Why do some geographers today believe malthus theory can be used to predict future population issues?

­see more people as a bad thing

∙ Technological optimists believe that Malthus' and Ehrlich’s predictions are wrong  because they failed to account for scientific progress. They also believe more people  mean larger markets more workers and increased efficiency due to mass predictions, More people also provide more intelligence and enterprise to overcome problems ­see people as the “ultimate resource” We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of spring potential energy?

Which group does Paul Erlich fall into?

∙ Neo-Malthusianism

How about Julian Simon?

∙ Technological Optimists

The demographic transition model Don't forget about the age old question of What is the dynamic nature of chemical equilibria?

∙ Stage 1 (pre­modern)­ high birth and death rates

∙ Stage 2 (development) Rising standard of living causes death rates to fall. However,  birth rates stay constant or even rise, causing net population growth If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of continuous tone photography?

∙ Stage 3 (urbanization, modernization) birth rates begin to fall, reducing the growth rate ∙ Stage 4 (fully developed) Transition is complete and both death and birth rates are low  and population stabilizes at the new, higher number We also discuss several other topics like What is the purpose of public opinion?

 Identify “rapid growth” “stationary” and “contracting” populations from population pyramid  charts 

∙ age­sex structure of a country can be studied through population pyramids ∙ shape of the pyramid indicates the potential for future growth 

∙ Rapid growth is illustrated by a big bottom of the graph and a thin top of the graph, wide  base narrow top 

­means there is a majority of young people

∙ Stationary population is illustrated by an even graph all around

­means there is slow population growth

∙ Contracting population is shown by a narrow base

­means there aren’t a lot of young people, elderly and shrinking 

Globalization and how Neo­Malthusians and Technological Optimists might view its  implications Don't forget about the age old question of What is the process through which evolution occurs?

∙ Globalization is an increase of connectiveness

∙ Neo­Malthusians might see it as only bringing us closer to the population crash and  wasting resources faster, negatively  Don't forget about the age old question of Does something have to be registered with the copyright office to be protected?

­process that increases production is just speeding up the use of our resources, so it is getting  us closer to the crash point

∙ Tech. Optimists might view it as more sharing of ideas between countries, see running  out of resources as an innovation to use a new resource, or advances to reduce that certain resource, positively 

How has globalization impacted consumption and production? 

∙ Consumption and production have both increased

 What is the “race to the bottom”? 

∙ government deregulation of the business environment, or reduction in tax rates, in order  to attract or retain economic activity in their jurisdictions 

∙ often very low prices

∙ has to do with globalization

∙ lowering of standard due to competition

 Define the Tragedy of the Commons and it’s implications for managing environmental problems ∙ How the logic of personal gain will inevitably overfill and destroy the common ∙ Individuals acting independently and rationally according to each’s self­interes, behave 

contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource ∙ Often driven by negative externalities 

­expense borne by someone not involved in the transaction

­common problem having to do with common resources

Ex. Overfishing

Solutions to the Tragedy of the Commons/Implications for managing environmental problems ∙ Non­governmental 

­common management

Works for resources with (1) definable boundaries, (2) clear threat of resource depletion, (3) a  community with strong social norms, (4) small and stable populations, (5) community based  incentives and punishments

∙ Governmental 



Ways to measure the wealth of nations: GDP, GPI, EPI

∙ Gross domestic product (GDP) 

­value of goods/services produced divided by population

­May externalize costs

∙ Genuine Progress indicator (GPI) 

­alternative measure

­ used to measure the economic growth of a country 

­ GDP–economic value of degradation/enhancement of environment

∙ Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 

­Measures environmental health and ecosystem vitality 

­Environmental Health: Indoor air pollution, child mortality, drinking water, adequate  sanitation

­Environmental Vitality: Water consumption, wilderness protection, overfishing, energy  efficiency, CO2 emissions

Discuss how the Environmental Kuznets Curve describes the relationship between economic  development and environmental degradation

∙ Environmental Kuznets curve shows relationship between economic development and  environmental quality by

­ an inverted U­shaped relationship meaning environmental degradation increases in the early  stage of economic development (environment worsens) , and after a specific point (turning point) it decreases as income increases (environment then improves)

Discuss the connection between Environmental Kuznets Curve and Ecological Shadows ∙ Consumption and production have different geographies

∙ environmental impact of a country from consuming resources that originated in another  country. 

Ex. Wood logged unsustainably in country x that is transported to and used in country y.  Country x has all the ecological downsides (deforestation) and those negative effects are  usually not visible in country y

∙ connection between the two are that more developed countries tend to have largest  impact on environment

The Hydrologic Cycle 

∙ Driven by suns energy and gravity

∙ Water circulates among the ocean, land, and the atmosphere through

­evaporation, liquid to gas

­Transpiration, vegetation turns into water

­Sublimation, solid to gas

­Condensation, gas to liquid

­precipitation, rain

∙ Size and residence times of water compartments

­Oceans 97%

­ Ice and snow 2%, Slow turnover, 1000­10,000 years, very stable, largest of fresh water ­Groundwater .8%, Slow turnover, over 20,000 yrs

­Surface water .01%, Residence time: 10s of years, 

­Atmosphere .001%, rapid turnover rate (~10 days) and is the most important mechanism for  delivering water around the world

­Biosphere .001%, Rapid turnover rate (~1 week),

(time water spends in each compartment shows us how easy it is to access the water and how  easy to replenish the water)

*Smaller components tend to have shorter residence times

Which countries have highest levels of water stress?

∙ Water stress is a lack of available fresh water resources to meet water demand ∙ South Africa has low supply and high demand

(areas with high demand and low supply have water stress)

∙ Areas w/ high population are going to need more water

∙ Areas in high pressure systems, bcz it means there is low precipitation

How much water is used by agriculture, industry, and domestic purposes? ∙ Water use has been increasing almost twice as fast as population growth over past  century

­not only is population increasing but our consumption of water is increasing as well ∙ Worldwide, agriculture claims about 60% of total water withdrawal – In many  developing countries, agricultural water use is inefficient

∙ Worldwide, domestic(drinking, bathing, etc)use accounts for about 25% of all water  withdrawal

∙ Worldwide, industry accounts for about 15% of all water withdrawal  – Cooling water for power plants largest industrial use

How do these uses lead to water shortages?

∙ ~1.5­2B people lack access to adequate supply of drinking water

∙ 3 billion lack acceptable sanitation

∙ Globally, water supplies are abundant, but they are unevenly distributed ∙ More than 2/3 of world’s households retrieve water from outside of home – lack of  infrastructure in developing countries 

Ways to address water shortages 

∙ Supply side solutions (things that make water more available)

­Towing Icebergs : time consuming

­Desalination: ( process that extracts mineral components from saline water) very expansive and uses up a lot of power and energy

­Cloud Seeding­create clouds in an area, condensation Nuclei, allows more precipitation ­Dams, Reservoirs, and Canals: Trap surface water for storage or transfer (dams also supply  hydroelectric power), Provide means for flood control, damns displaces people, in China 1  million people were moved for the Three Gorges Dams

∙ Demand side solutions   (things that will cut the usage of water)

­Many societies could cut ~1/2 current domestic water usage without major sacrifice, Largest  domestic uses are toilets and showers.

­Water pricing 

­Removal of subsidies for farmers may encourage water conserving measures like drip irrigation And irrigation improvements

Types of water pollution (8)

∙ Sewage 

­wastewater from drains or sewers; includes human wastes, soaps, and detergents ­includes disease­causing agents

­increase biochemical oxygen demand  (BOD)

∙ nutrient pollution 

­artificial eutrophication, the fertilization of water

∙  inorganic chemicals

­Acids, salts, heavy metals

­ Mercury released from coal­burning power plants is a widespread problem in North America ∙ organic chemicals 

­ Improper disposal of industrial and household wastes

­runoff of pesticides, includes endocrine

∙ Sediment 

­ Human activates have accelerated erosion rates in many areas

­ Humans move more sediment than any other process on earth

∙ Thermal 

­ Rising water temperatures adversely impact water quality and aquatic life ­ Oxygen solubility in water decreases as temperatures increase

Human Impacts to the Coastal Zone

∙ Coastal development  

­can alter or destroy coastal ecosystems

­coastal areas often overdeveloped, highly polluted, overfished

­coastal management plans are inadequate

­60% of world’s population lives within 150 km (93 miles) of coast

­As much as 75% by 2025

∙ Offshore extraction of mineral and energy resources

­large deposits of mineral lie under the sea floor

Ex. Petroleum and Manganese nodule

∙ Plastic waste 

­doesn’t degrade, just breaks up into smaller pieces

­plastic pieces entangle marine mammals and birds

­filter feeders ingest plastic pieces, carriers of PCBs

∙ Anthropogenic climate Change  

­human caused climate change

Surface current 

∙ wind driven

∙ primarily horizontal motion

Circulation Patterns 

∙ Circulation patterns are complex, variable, and random (hard to predict)

Technologies and developments of the Green Revolution 

∙ Dramatic increase in agricultural production in developing world 

∙ Due to tech advances and transfer of existing technologies

1.Synthetic Fertilizer 

∙ Haber Process

­production of ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen gas

­allows plants to use nitrogen 

∙ Fertilizer produced by Haber process sustains 1/3 to ½ of human population ∙ Takes up a lot of energy

2. Synthetic pesticides 

∙ Pesticide: chemical or biological agent that kills or deters pest

∙ Up to ½ of current crop yields might be lost in absence of pesticides ∙ Broad (kills everything) vs. Narrow spectrum (just goes after intended pest) ­unfortunately, most are broad and move around easily 

3. Expansion of Irrigation Infrastructure 

∙ Ag accounts for largest single share of global water use

∙ As much as 80% of water withdrawn for irrigation never reaches intended destination ∙ Cheap cost encourages over­use

∙ Waterlogging and salinization

4.Breeding High Yield Fields Crops 

∙ New varieties of rice and wheat developed using selective breeding ­high yield, disease resistance

Benefits of the Green Revolution

∙ Reasons many people didn’t starve in the 1970s

∙ Average person in developing world consumes 25% more calories per day now ∙ Credited with helping billions avoid starvation

Criticisms of the Green Revolution

∙ Food security 


­allowed population to keep expanding, delayed the population crash

­food production is not the same thing as food security 

­move towards cash crop

∙ Socioeconomic impacts 

­food production only gets moved to highly developed countries leaving the rest to suffer ­developing countries depend on imported tech

­can push out small scale farmers

­people with a lot of money will exceed while the other fail at 

­increased mechanization = fewer jobs, less labor is required

∙ Environmental impacts 

­loss of genetic diversity, decline of biodiversity

­more chemical inputs 

­more greenhouse gas 

­more energy intensive

∙ Health impacts 

­decrease in food quality

­pesticides have negative effects, poisoning, increases rates of cancer, etc

Was Norman Borlaug, the “father of the green revolution”, a Neo­Malthusian or technological  optimist?

∙ Technological optimist because he created technology that helped with agriculture that  would help feed millions allowing people to live and population to increase.

Genetically Modified Foods 

∙ Foods that contain an added gene sequence

∙ Foods that have a deleted gene sequence

∙ Animal products from animals feed GM feed

∙ Products produced by GM organisms

GM benefits 

∙ Creating plants better resistant to pests 

∙ Bigger yields 

GM drawbacks

∙ superweeds

∙ Creation of new allergens

∙ Big corporation running everything 

practices that promote sustainable agriculture 

∙ Ag methods that maintain soil productivity and a healthy ecological balance while having minimal long­term impacts

∙ Combines modern w/ traditional techniques

∙ Increases biodiversity in crops and livestock to enhance food security, maximize natural processes, and minimize pesticide inputs

∙ Manages wetlands and water resources carefully

∙ Enhance soil health and minimize erosion through crop rotation, multiple cropping,  conservation tillage, and planting tracts of forests

∙ Emphasize total agriculture ecosystem rather than single crop known as monoculture ∙ Improve soil fertility by adding organic matter and managing soil biology to minimize  commercial inorganic fertilizer inputs

“food desert” 

∙ Geographic area where affordable and healthy food is difficult to obtain ∙ Have limited access to fresh foods

strategies for increasing access to healthy foods in economically disadvantaged areas ∙ Tax breaks and other economic incentives

∙ Common level interventions  

­farmers market

­Mobile carts

­community gardens

Tragedy of commons and how it applies to fisheries 

∙ Individuals acting independently and rationally according to each’s self interest, applies  to fisheries bcz people continue to fish and make money even it has negative effects on  the environment

Challenge of fisheries management 

∙ hard to come up w/ the number of fish each person is able to catch

∙ lots of different types of fish

∙ no one owns the water or is in charge of it 

∙ water resources are large

Positives aspects of aquaculture

∙ Aquaponics 

­Waste products from aquaculture used to fertilize agriculture

­Plants used to filter/clean water for aquaculture

∙ Uses sustainable agriculture

Negatives aspects of aquaculture

∙ Nutrient pollution

∙ Land degradation

∙ Chemical inputs

∙ Disease and parasites

∙ Escapes of large fish that will throw off natural balance

∙ Social Issues

Primary air pollutants 

∙ enter directly into atmosphere

∙ carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (creates secondary pollutants)

Secondary air pollutants 

∙ form when primary pollutants react chemically w/ one another and the atmosphere ∙ ozone sulfur trioxide, photochemical (pollutants facilitated by sunlight), smog

How is smog created?

∙ Smog is a combination of primary and secondary pollutants ∙ 2 main anthropogenic sources of primary air pollutants

-transportation (mobile sources) ex. cars

-power plants (stationary sources)

(burning coal is responsible for most of these emissions)

∙ Natural resources  

-volcanoes, natural fires, dust storms

How geography (topography and climate) can exacerbate smog problems ∙ Certain topographies increase the likelihood of an inversion

­cities in valleys, coastal areas most effected 

What about the geography of LA makes it susceptible to smog problems?  ­LA Basin topography encourages inversion

*more sunlight, more heat, more ozone 

­in high pressure system 30N

What are some other locations that have smog problems?

∙ Coasts, valleys like Bakersfield

 Describe how air pollution is monitored and regulated in CA and the USA  ∙ EPA

∙ Clean Air Act

∙ Air Quality index

 How has air pollution changed in CA over the past 60 years? 

∙ It has been decreasing 

 Explain the greenhouse effect and how it has affected climate over (1) the past 400,000 years  and (2) the past 100 years 

∙ Energy radiated from earth is absorbed and re­emitted by greenhouse gases (H20, CO2,  CH4) in the atmosphere trapping the heat

1. Sunlight (insolation) is absorbed at surface

2. Some heat radiated from earth escapes directly to space 

3. Some heat radiated from Earth is absorbed by greenhouse gases

4. Some of this is transferred back to Earth’s surface

∙ Radiative forcing: capacity of gasses to retain heat in Earth’s atmosphere ∙ More greenhouse gases=more heat absorbed

Positive feedbacks 

∙ accelerate warming (processes that would cause an increase in warming) ∙ Ice­Albedo effect (decrease in ice leads to lower albedo, lower albedo means less  energy is reflected and more energy is absorbed which leads to warming and then  more ice melting)

∙ Methane release from permafrost peat bogs 

∙ Forest fires

∙ Rainforest drying

∙ Desertification

∙ Water Vapor feedback (temp. goes up evaporation goes up, if evaporation goes up  there is more water vapor in the air which is a greenhouse gas, more greenhouse gas is more warming)

Negative feedbacks 

∙ Negative feedbacks slow warming

∙ Chemical weathering (break down of rocks absorbs carbon and reducing  the amount of greenhouse in atmosphere)

∙ Net primary productivity (fertilization effect)  

-can makes plants grow better, pulls carbon out of atmosphere  

Climate change mitigation 

∙ moderation of effects by reducing greenhouse emissions

-Develop alternative to fossil fuels

-Increase energy efficiency, fuel economy  

- Carbon capture  

-Plant and maintain forests as carbon sinks

Climate change adaptation 

∙ response to changes caused by climate change

-Move coastal settlements inland  

-Construct sea walls  

- Adapt to shifting agricultural zones

 Describe and explain global patterns of per capita energy consumption  Describe and explain global patterns of total energy consumption 

 how to evaluate non­renewable sources 

How to evaluate renewable energy sources based on (1) availability, (2) cost, (3) energy return  on investment, and (4) environmental impacts

Practice Questions From Lecture 

Which of the following reservoirs has the longest residence time?

a. Atmospheric water

b. Lakes

c. River Channels

d. Biospheric water

e. groundwater

Which accounts for the largest percentage of global water use?

a. Agricultural uses

b. Industrial uses

c. Power plant cooling

Describe the drivers of this water stress in terms of climate controls and  population demographics. What are some approaches that can be used to  reduce water stress in this specific place? What are some approaches we can use to solve the problem?

∙ Drivers of water scarcity in LA is low precipitation, supply issue, we are  at a high-pressure system. We should use drip irrigation or desalinate  plants since we can afford it  

∙ Drivers of water scarcity in Lagos is over population, demand problem,  population is increasing it has a big bottom on the graph

-lagos population can be foreign investment, they need more infrastructure

Which of the following is a supply-side solution to water stress? a. Promoting low flow shower heads

b. Removal of water subsides for farming

c. Increasing the number of desalination plants

d. Altering water pricing policies

e. Drip irrigation techniques

Is particulate matter a primary or secondary air pollutant?

∙ Primary air pollutant

Which of the following is not true about ozone?

A. Without the ozone layer, Earth would be unhabitable

B. Ozone is a pollutant in the stratosphere

C. Ozone is a pollutant at ground level (troposphere)

D. Humans use of Chloroflourocarbons (CFCs) have caused unnatural  thinning of the ozone layer

E. All of the above

Which of the following is not a sustainable agriculture practice?

A. Crop rotation

B. Managing wetland and water resources carefully  C. Monoculture

D. Using integrated pest management to reduce pesticide inputs E. All of the above are sustainable  

Which of the following is a supply side solution to water stress?

A. Promoting low flow showerheads

B. Removal of water subsidies

C. Increasing the number of desalination plants D. Altering water pricing policies

E. Drip irrigation techniques

Which accounts for the largest percentage of water use?

A. Agricultural uses

B. Industrial uses

C. Municipal uses

D. Household uses

E. Powerplant cooling

Which of the following reservoirs has the longest residence time?

A. Atmospheric water

B. Lakes

C. River channels

D. Biospheric water

E. Groundwater

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