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GWU / History / HIST 1011 / Who is jamal al-afghani?

Who is jamal al-afghani?

Who is jamal al-afghani?


School: George Washington University
Department: History
Course: World History, 1500-Present
Professor: Professor kennedy
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: world, berns, and history
Cost: 50
Name: World history final study guide
Description: The study guide for the final including terms and their historical significance.
Uploaded: 03/14/2018
5 Pages 102 Views 10 Unlocks

World History Final Study Guide Terms

Who is jamal al-afghani?


- definition = a woman seeking the right to vote  

- argument based on idea that men and women are equal, therefore both should vote  - argument also based on idea the women and men are different therefore women will bring in  values of the home (as caretakers of children and the home) to politics  

- complicated by the fact that not all men can vote  

- extreme actions —>vandalized golf courses, threw themselves in front of horses at races  - after WWI, women get the vote in most places because politicians fear another militant  suffrage movement  

- right to vote was specifically focused on in western countries  

Historical significance  

Who is the first prime minister of independent india when they got independence from britain in 1947?

- women get the right to vote eventually  

- ex: Britain they first get to vote in local elections, New Zealand is the first place to let  women vote in legislature (want female settlers)  

- important step in the women’s equality movement  

Jamal Al-Afghani (19th century)  

- a political activist  

- Islam is facing a crisis in the 19th c —>externally had fallen behind western world in tech,  medicine etc and internally people weren’t recognizing muslim leaders

- he believes Western imperialism is the reason the Muslim world isn’t doing well  - wants to fight imperialism and believes the key to this is a united, collective identity among  Muslims —>pan-islamism(uniting all Muslims under one rule/caliphate)  His Sig  

Who is mikhail gorbachev?

If you want to learn more check out What does the supreme court say about guns?

- considered a founder of pan-islamism—>still important today, some Muslims still want this  - worked to spread his ideas that there needs to be separation from the West—>convinces some  people of this and furthers the divide between the West and the Islamic world  

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

- cause = both countries wanted power in the Pacific, starts when Japan invaded the Russian  held Korea and Russia’s Pacific port city of Manchuria  

- Japan beat them very badly—>sunk Russian fleets, killed a lot of their soldiers, Russia had to  concede Korea and Manchuria  

Historical Significance  

- contributes to the Russian Revolution of 1905  

- weakens regime  

- embarrassing for the Russians (idea that Europeans shouldn’t use to non-Europeans,  Russians had dismissed the Japanese as a race of barbarians)  

- thought the war would unite everyone but didn’t work, Nicolas II is a terrible czar =  the people lose faith in the regime and REVOLT  

- explodes the myth of white invincibility and gives hope to the colonies/victims of  imperialism across the world We also discuss several other topics like What is s.w.o.t. analysis?

- also adds another imperialist power in the world—>Japan then begins to try and move  into China, Southeast Asia, even central and south America  

The Pill

- revolutionary form of birth control for women  

Historical Sig  

- women having children has exasperated inequality as they would have to stay home and take  care of children, medical issues came along with carry children, couldn’t get an education— >pill helps counteract this  

- marked government’s movement away from natalism (have as many babies as possible), now  wanted to control population because of pop explosion  

- huge families = more people to feed, educate, etc  

- gov would enforce these policies ex: Chinese 1 child policy  

Unequal Treaties

- overall, the more powerful/imperialistic countries would create treaties that were very  unfair(greatly benefitted them) when they won wars/battles  

- first of the “Unequal Treaties” comes from Opium Wars = China vs Britain  - Britain has much better weapons(because of industrial revolution)  

- China has advantage of fighting at home but still Britain crushes them  - at the end of the war, Qing’s are first to settle and accept an unequal treaty which gives  Britain the advantage —>ends opium war in 1842  If you want to learn more check out What is the study of magnetic fields whose origin is in specific biological systems?

- China loses the right to set its own tariffs (tariffs have to be agreed upon w/Western  traders)  If you want to learn more check out Who is elizabeth cady stanton?

- an agreement b/w a Westerner and Chinese will be heard in a Western court  - unfiltered access for Christian missionaries (Protestant and Catholic)  

- happens in Japan in the 1880s as well  

- Western powers, exploiting their military advantage, imposed unequal treaties that  allowed them to sell goods in Japan cheaply and exempted their nationals from Japanese  law  We also discuss several other topics like How porous are membranes?

Historical Sig  

- in China  

- part of the fall of the Confucian World Order  

- calls into question the capability of the Qings, Chinese resentment of the Mancchus  reemerges  

- along with resentment for foreigners, there is interest—>what makes them so powerful?  - religion = some Chinese conversions  

- people want to learn about foreign politics, ideas, and tech  

- overall increased the dominance of western, imperial powers and hurt the developing world  

Abdul Hamid II

- Ottoman sultan from 1876-1909

- the empire adopted a Constitution in 1876 and then wanted a Sultan to unite them but when  Abdul Hamid takes power, he suspends the Constitution and Parliament to consolidate power  - wants to instead used Islam to united the empire (pan-Islamism)  

- wants to make Islam more prominent but there are some non-Muslims in the empire  - Christians are repressed  

- also some Muslims who just don’t care that much about Islam, some Muslims live  outside the borders of the empire  

His Sig  

- unsuccessful in uniting the empire, Ottoman Empire finally collapsed in 1922  - other important policies  

- built over a dozen professional schools  We also discuss several other topics like Which step of the job enrichment process entails forming a team and making the team responsible for the work?

- built a network of telegraphs and railroads  

Fascism (19th Century)

- radical ideology—>includes military, single-party regime,with a focus on a glamorized leader  - ex: Mussolini (Italy, leader of first successful Fascist Party, 1922) and Hitler(Germany)  - Mussolini creates a single party state, abolition of freedom of the press and freedom of  speech, organization of Italians into fascist party, takeover of school curriculum) - Hitler organizes Nazi party in a fascist way  

His Sig  

- still relevant today (ex: at Women’s March in 2017 people were chanting “No Trump. No  KKK. No Fascist USA”)  

- allows Hitler to create the Holocaust as fascism was based on the idea that one leader/one  party could control everything and essentially do whatever he/she wanted  - ideologies of fascism continued to be adopted after Mussolini by other countries ex: dictator in  Peru in the 1930’s, Spain had certain ideologies consistent with fascism in the 1940s  

Scramble for Africa (1880-1884)  

- late 19th century competition among European powers to acquire colonies in Africa  - Africa and Europe before the scramble  

- Europe had very limited awareness/understanding of Africa (except Egypt, a few coastal  areas, British colony of South Africa)  

- the rest of the continent was referred to as the “darkest Africa”  

- 19th century marks outside military and economic power coming to Africa  - in order to justify their imperialistic activities, missionaries would characterize Africa  and South Pacific as barbaric and savage (ex: said many societies practice cannibalism)  —>these people need to be civilized  

- after seeing King Leopolds profits in the Congo Free State (through EXTREME exploitation  of the people), different countries are all racing, scrambling to conquer different territories of  Africa making it clear there need to be rules to prevent European war  

- truly a scramble for resources  

His Sig  

- exploring/explorers became a lifestyle/job

- leads to the The Congress of Berlin 1885  

- each country sends representatives  

- African economies and ethnic groups were divided and destroyed to accommodate  Europeans  

- King Leopold’s actions shows how imperialism is terrible—>hurts countries and kills people  (estimated 10 mil Congolese were killed), his actions become heavily criticized by the  international community, starts one of the first humanitarian movements  

- furthers the interconnectedness of the global economy  

- deepened political rivalries in Europe as powers competed over the same areas  

Chinese Diaspora (19th and 20th century)

- the migration of Chinese immigrants around the world between the 19th-20th century  His Sig  

- massive migration, including of the Chinese, helped reshape the world’s labor force  - provided labor for the North American industrialization, settled un-crowded areas in  South America and the North American West  

- overall transformed the demographics of areas around the world  

Jawaharlal Nehru

- first prime minister of independent India when they got independence from Britain in 1947  - also worked with Ghandi to get this independence  

His Sig  

- part of imperialistic powers giving up their colonies—>overall trend of decolonization during  this time period  

- helped India become somewhat more progressive  

- promotes scientific and technological advancements, promotes education (including free  public education), legal rights for women, creates laws to prohibit discrimination based  on caste  

- moved Indian politics in a more secular direction  

- overall helps bring more modern values and ways of thinking to iIndia  

FLN (Algeria)  

- Algeria is settler colony of France, France wanted to make Algeria part of France (not just a  colony) = emergence of FLN  

- Political party that was a continuation of the revolutionary body that directed the Algerian War  of Independence against France (1954-1962)

- Algerian national movement, want independence, not willing to negotiate, waged terrorist and  military campaign against France  

His Sig  

- France isn’t willing to give Algeria up because they had already lost to the Germans and in  Vietnam  

- create 5th Republic—>new ruler is Charles de Gual

- France leaves Algeria, embarrassing for de Gual, FLN is ruling party


United Nations

- created in 1945  

- international political organization created after WWII to prevent armed conflict, settle  international disputes peacefully and provide cultural, economic and technological aid  His Sig  

- has been an important advocate for global peace and security with committees to support  sustainable development, refugees, women etc  

- has helped many countries and people around the world  

- has contributed to the increasing globalization of the world as it brings officials and people  from across the globe together, promotes tolerance across cultures  

- also had added to the dominance of certain countries (specifically Russia, US, France, Britain  and China) because they have veto power in the UN Security Council  

Mikhail Gorbachev (1990-1991)

- president of the Soviet Union  

- helped end the Cold War and worked to improve the Soviet Union’s relationship with the West  (advocated for “glasnost” = openness and “perestroika” = restructure of the Union’s economy)  - relaxed censorship and wanted to move towards a more social democracy  His Sig  

- he becomes a figure of hope throughout the communist world

- Leads to the breakup of the Soviet Empire—>millions of Soviets died in WWII and they  blamed him, many political protests finally ended the empire  

- the Chinese communist regime learns from the mistake of Gorbachev which allows them to  remain in control  

- Gorbachev worked on political openness which backfired so the Chines instead take a  path of economic and technological modernization but do not open the political system (harsh on freedom of press, speech, etc)  

Vietnam War (1955-75)

- struggle between North Vietnam and its allies in the South(known as the Viet Cong,backed by  the Soviet Union) and South Vietnam (backed by the US)  

- US got involved because they wanted to stop communism from spreading after WWII  His Sig  

- America loses—>first time this happened, removed the idea that America was invincible  - shows the immense damage that can ensue when western/imperialist powers get involved in/ try to control developing countries  

- millions of Vietnamese citizens died, greatly hurt the environment of Vietnam  - France pulling out in the first place (it was a French colony) started the war within  Vietnam between the North and South  


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