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JMU - Gen 113 - Study Guide - Midterm

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JMU - Gen 113 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: James Madison University
Department: General Education Isat
Course: Gen 113
Professor: Stephanie Batchelet
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: ISAT 113 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover all the relevant information on exam 2
Uploaded: 03/15/2018
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background image ISAT 113 Exam 2 Study Guide Genetic Basics: Phenotype - physical/observable traits Genotype – genetic characteristics (not observable) Chromosomes = DNA + Protein; chromosomes are comprised of 
alleles which hold the specific traits.
o There are 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, which are observable in a  chart called a karyotype. o The format “3q26” tells you that you are looking at  chromosome 3, on the q arm, in the 26 th  region. o Chromosomes have a q (longer arm) and p (shorter arm) arm. o 22 of the pairs are autosomal, meaning they are non-sex  chromosomes, while the last pair is the sex chromosome The sex chromosome is haploid, meaning the two 
chromosomes are not attached/paired together like the 
other pairs.
o There are autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant  diseases, meaning the disease is caused by one of the non-sex 
chromosome pairs.
Autosomal recessive diseases require both parents to be
a carrier of the gene since the allele is recessive (ex: Sickle
Cell)
Autosomal dominant diseases require only one of the 
parents to be a carrier since the gene for the disease is the
dominant allele (ex: Huntington’s Disease)
background image DNA & RNA Basics: DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid)  o Double Helix o Sugar-Phosphate backbone o Anti-Parallel, meaning that one side starts at 5 prime, and the  other at 3 prime o Nucleotides: Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine; with pairings of A-T and G-C RNA (RiboNucleicAcid)  o Single stranded o Sugar-Phosphate backbone o Nucleotides: Adenine, Guanine, Uracil, Cytosine; with pairings of  A-U and G-C *Note that RNA uses Uracil instead of Thymine DNA Replication: Creates a copy of DNA in a semi-conservative process, meaning that 
one “parent” strand and one “daughter” strand are there after the 
process.
Goes from 5 prime to 3 prime It is a bi-directional process, meaning it happens in either direction, 
starting at an origin and continuing until it encounters a termination 
sequence.
Occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic organisms Stores genetic information Steps:
background image 1. Initiation 2. Elongation 3. Termination Players in the process: Helicase – unwinds the double stranded DNA to provide a single  strand template, which enables replication to start Primase – synthesizes a short sequence of RNA primer at a  specific origin point, RNA primer is used on the lagging strand 
because continuous replication only occurs on the leading strand.
DNA Polymerase – extends the primer and creates the DNA copy  on the lagging strand, it can also locate any errors Topoisomerase – nicks the DNA ahead of the replication fork,  preventing any “knots” and allowing the process to go smoothly DNA Ligase – forms the phosphodiester bonds Single Stranded Binding Proteins – stabilize the  lagging/discontinuous strand *Note that this all happens simultaneously  Transcription: DNA  RNA Not all DNA is transcribed Follows the same three steps that DNA replication does 5 prime to 3 prime Uses DNA as a template for what RNA strand to making, substituting 
uracil for thymine, there is a coding strand (used to produce the RNA 
strand) and a non-coding/template strand (not used for RNA 
production).
background image Produces one strand of RNA 3 Types of RNA: o mRNA – is the messenger RNA that uses the genetic information,  so it is the only type of RNA that is transcribed, it can be 
transient 
o tRNA – is transfer RNA that interprets mRNA and builds proteins  out of the amino acids that form during translation (next section) o rRNA – is ribosomal RNA that is found in the ribosomal complex  of a cell, which makes proteins Translation: This process turns RNA into amino acids, which are then used to 
produce protein
5 prime to 3 prime All three types of RNA are involved, but only mRNA is translated, not 
the other types
tRNA is the interpreter Occurs in the ribosomal complex (ribomes) in the cytoplasm (in both 
prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells).
3 nucleotides per amino acids, each triplet is called a codon 61/64 codons code for an amino acid, the remaining three are stop 
codons
Mutations: mutation is a heritable change to the nucleotide sequence of a 
cell’s DNA, it’s not a huge deal if a mutation occurs in RNA since RNA 
codes for proteins and there are so many proteins that one bad one is 
not the end of the world. If on eoccurs in DNA it can be more serious.
Types of Mutations: o Point 

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School: James Madison University
Department: General Education Isat
Course: Gen 113
Professor: Stephanie Batchelet
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Name: ISAT 113 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover all the relevant information on exam 2
Uploaded: 03/15/2018
15 Pages 45 Views 36 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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