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C of C - PSYC 216 - Class Notes - Week 10

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C of C - PSYC 216 - Class Notes - Week 10

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background image Hearing (continued): Cochlear Membrane: Oval window has low frequencies Cochlear apex has high frequencies Cochlear Implants: most successful prosthesis for nervous systems o Substitutes mechanical stimulation of stereocilia with stimulation of central axons of auditory nerve Spiral Ganglion:  30,000 nerve fibers o Type I fibers: myelinated (fast) 95% of fibers for inner hair cells Varying distribution of basilar membrane: Mid­cochlea: 15 fibers/hair cell Base apex: 3­4 fibers/hair cell o Type II fibers: unmyelinated (slow) 5% of fibers for outer hair cells Less than 4 fibers/hair cell From superior oliveauditory nervefibers  OR auditory nervefrom cochlea to cochlear nucleus Efferent info: protects from loudness and fine tunes signal CN VIII; Acoustic Nerve; Auditory Nerve; Cochlear Nerve: Efferent connections via CN VIII emanate SOC o Likely role in “tuning” basilar membrane vibrations o Modulate inner hair cells signals by altering length of OHC cilia Afferent information emanates from spiral gangia of CN VIII Type I fiberstype I neuronsinner hair cells Type II fiberstype II neuronsouter hair cells Neuroanatomy of Auditory System: Information takes 2 routes (spiral ganglion cell): o Dorsal or ventral cochlear nucleus (monaural) o Superior olivary complex (binaural) o Inferior colliculus o Medial geniculate nucleus o Auditory cortex Ventral cochlear nucleuscontralateral superior olivary complex OR ipsilateral superior 
olivary complex
Dorsal cochlear nucleus all contralateral to inferior colliculus Most information from right ear goes to left side or brain
background image Superior olivary complexipsilateral inferior colliculusmedial geniculate nucleus  Hemispheres: Left hemisphere: language­related tasks Right hemisphere: music­related tasks Sound Detection: Two ways to measure minimum threshold
1.
Minimum audible pressure: threshold intensity for sound stimulus presented 
through earphones and measured at eardrum
Artificial situation 2. Minimum audible field: threshold intensity for sound stimulus presented and 
measured in free field
Thresholds are lower because of resonances and amplification from pinnae 
and ear canal
The lower limits of sensitivity are determined by sound of blood rushing through tiny 
blood vessels in middle and inner ear, or by random motion of air molecules
Dynamic range: for particular frequency, difference between absolute threshold and pain
threshold, measured in decibels
o Ear is most sensitive to sounds with frequencies between 1000 and 5000 Hz o Dynamic range in this zone of maximum sensitivity is 150 dB o This represents 7.5 million fold increase in sound pressure from weakest sound  detectable to most intense sound tolerable Monaural/Binaural Effects: Minimum threshold varies in monaural and binaural presentation of auditory stimulus Binaural presentation results in lower thresholds o Threshold for 2 ear detection is about half of that for one ear detection o Binaural sound interaction does not need to take place simultaneously Two sub­threshold monaural tones (1 to each ear) will be heard if they occur within 200 
milliseconds 
Perceptual Dimensions of Sound: Loudness: related to amplitude of tone because if we hold frequency constant and 
increase amplitude, loudness of tone increases
o Loudness=stimulus intensity Amplitudeloudness o Perception of loudness is also determined by frequency If tones of various frequencies sounded equally loud when they were same 
intensity all of curves would be straight lines
Tones of equal intensity but different frequencies appear to differ in loudness

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School: College of Charleston
Department: Psychology
Course: Sensation and Perception
Professor: Garrett Milliken
Term: Winter 2016
Tags:
Name: Sensation and Perception Psychology Week 10 Notes
Description: These notes cover sound detection and more of hearing.
Uploaded: 03/16/2018
6 Pages 34 Views 27 Unlocks
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