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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 9

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UCONN - ANTH 1500 - Class Notes - Week 9

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 Notes - Week 9 - 3/16/18
Description: Review notes
Uploaded: 03/17/2018
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background image     Week 9 
 
Review Week! 
 
Mesopotamia 
  
Chronological Period: 
1.  Neolithic: Halaf (Emerging household institutions) 7500-6500 BCE 
2.  Ubaid Period (1st temples, stratification, slow wheel) 6300-4500 BCE 
3.  Uruk Period (city-states, cities, writing, colonialism) 4000-3100 BCE 
4.  Jemdet Nasr (Consolidation of city-states) 3100-2900 BCE 
5.  Early Dynastic (City-state competition) 2900-2370 BCE 
6.  Akkadian Empire (Regional imperialism) 2370-2200 BCE 
7.  Ur III Period (City-states, renewed imperialism) 2200-1900 BCE 
                  
Sites:       
•  Hacinebi  
•  Tepe  
•  Tell Leilan  
•  Tigris River  
•  Euphrates River  
•  Uruk  
•  Ur  
•  Eridu  
•  Tell al'Ubaid  
 
Social and Political complexity  
•  Social complexity: Term used to describe societies with differences in status  
•  Political complexity: Societies for which classes have replaced kin groups in 
organization        
Identifying status in the archaeological record  
•  Inequality in death = inequality in life?   o  Presence of grave goods  
o  Present with children (not old enough to have earned elevated 
status)   •  Differences in house size & furnishings  
background image            
Characteristics of politically-complex societies  
•  V. Gordon Childe  
•  1950 "The Urban Revolution"  
•  Charles Redman  
     
Characteristics of "The Urban Revolution"  
•  10 by Childe, primary and secondary division by Redman  
Primary: Economic, organizational, demographic  
1.  Cities 
2.  Full-time labor specialization 
3.  State organization (territorial residence) 
4.  Class stratification with ruling stratum 
5.  Concentration of surplus 
Secondary: Document primary criteria   1.  Monumental public works 
2.  Long distance trade 
3.  Writing/record keeping 
4.  Standardized artwork 
5.  Science, mathematics, astronomy 
***Will be on Exam 2!  
 
Reasons for shift to urbanism  
•  Long distance trade 
•  Competition and warfare 
•  Population growth 
•  Irrigation 
•  Power of the temples and elite 
       
(Marsh in extreme southern Mesopotamia, 1974) 
   
The Neolithic: Halaf  
•  9,600-6,300 cal BCE 
•  PPN/PN periods  
•  Halaf culture: 7600-6500 BCE, N. Mesopotamia  
o  Pottery becomes widespread  
o  Trade networks spreading ideas and styles  
background image           
The Chalcolithic Period  
•  "Copper Age" 
•  Between Neolithic and Bronze Age 
•  Period of increasing complexity in both social and political spheres of life 
•  First cities 
•  First experiments with metals 
•  Includes 'Ubaid, Uruk, and Jemdet Nasr periods  
  
The 'Ubaid Period  
•  6,300-4,500 cal BC 
•  Large multiroom mudbrick structures 
•  Painted pottery with geometric designs 
•  Ranked societies, but not yet a state 
•  Period named after Tell al 'Ubaid 
     
Evidence for 'Ubaid Social Complexity  
•  Cylinder seals, tokens 
•  Gradual increase in site size 
•  "Two-tier settlement hierarchy" 
•  Cyclical emergence/ collapse of centers 
•  Differentiation in architecture/burials  
  
'Ubaid: Households and Temples  
•  Household: basic unit of social and economic organization 
•  Specialized temple architecture emerges 
•  Temples are similar to household architecture 
   
Eridu: Growth of Temple Power  
•  Sumerians believed it to be the 1st city  
•  Excavations reveal growth of Enki Temple (over 3000+ years) Name: "House 
of the Waters"   •  Increasing size and elaboration 
•  Temples housed chief deity of each town  
 
Uruk Period: Beginning of Political Complexity  
background image     •  Uruk = name of site and period  o  4000-3100 B.C.E.   •  Development of city- states 
•  "Organic" growth, no town planning seen 
•  80-100 ha by 3100 BCE and 450 hectares by 2900 BCE 
o  50,000+ people       
Redistribution and Rationing  
•  Rationing: bevel-rim bowls  
•  Temples dominated redistribution system  
•  Mass mobilization of labor and grain storage  
•  Development of administrative bureaucracy  
o  Buildings and clay seals      
The Origins of Writing  
•  Bullae: Early Accounting Devices  
•  Development of Writing: 3400 B.C.E.  
•  Record Keeping and Bureaucracy  
•  85% of Uruk writing related to economic transactions   
•  Earliest form of writing: cuneiform  
  
The Uruk Expansion  
•  Ever greater need for resources 
•  Established colonies in North 
•  Control or partnership? 
•  Hacinebi Tepe: Uruk trade colony within local settlement 
o  Uruk artifacts, food preparation differences, intermarriage?         
Early Dynastic Period (EDI, II and III)  
•  Early Bronze Age 
•  2900-2350 BC 
o  Dozen city-states in south  •  Several in the north (Tell Leilan, Mari, Ebla) 
•  "Sumerian Civilization" 
 
Ur  

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Sociology
Course: Great Discoveries in Archaeology
Professor: Lucas Proctor
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology
Name: ANTH 1500 Notes - Week 9 - 3/16/18
Description: Review notes
Uploaded: 03/17/2018
18 Pages 39 Views 31 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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