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EKU / Biology / BIO 112 / What is the process through which evolution occurs?

What is the process through which evolution occurs?

What is the process through which evolution occurs?

Description

School: Eastern Kentucky University
Department: Biology
Course: Ecology and Evolution
Professor: Jamie lau
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: BIO 112 Study Guide 2
Description: This study guide covers what is going to be on the exam next Tuesday.
Uploaded: 03/17/2018
3 Pages 117 Views 2 Unlocks
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BIO 112 Study Guide 2 Test Date:  3.20.18


What is the process through which evolution occurs?



Evolution 

POPULATIONS EVOLVE, Microevolution (in a species) vs. Macroevolution (changes over long periods)

∙ Based on variation, natural selection, genes, and time. ∙ Useful characteristics needed to work

∙ Convergent evolution: Organisms not closely related, similar  traits as a result of similar environments

Natural Selection: Process through which evolution occurs People involved: 

∙ John Ray: first to carry out thorough study of natural world ∙ Carolus Linnaeus: Created taxonomy classification system ∙ George Buffon: Thought living things changed over time ∙ Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: Acquired characteristics (Giraffe Neck) ∙ Charles Darwin: Study on finches on Galapagos Islands o Was affected by Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology and  


Who is john ray?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 fair use exceptions to copyright?

Rev. Thomas Malthus’s essay on population

o Alfred Wallace had same idea as Darwin and Darwin  published papers together to share credit

Evidence for Evolution 

Organisms: 

1. Blend into environment

2. Change over time

3. Experimental evidence is shown

4. Anatomical similarities

5. Useless traits shown

6. Shared developmental pathways

7. DNA similarities shownDon't forget about the age old question of How does an adaptation affect the fitness of a species?

Homologous Genes: 1 gene gives rise to 2 separate ones, Orthologs  (different species) vs. Paralogs (same species) Don't forget about the age old question of How is chemical structure of protein different from cho and fats?

Horizontal Gene Transfer: genetic exchange between species Genomic Level: change in chromosome structure and number ∙ Inversion: gene or part of a chromosome is completely flipped Taxonomy 


What is the environmental impact on organism distribution?



3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

Binomial nomenclature to name (Genus species) Don't forget about the age old question of What is private for profit?

Phylogenetic Trees: shows evolutionary relationships

∙ Anagenesis: change within a lineage

∙ Cladogenesis: 1 species diverges into 2 or more  

∙ Monophyletic Group: all descendants and common ancestor ∙ Paraphyletic Group: common ancestor but not all descendants ∙ Polyphyletic Group: Multiple descendants but no common  

ancestor

∙ Symplesiomorphy (shared primitive character): Inherited from  common ancestor that isn’t the most recent one and is shared by Don't forget about the age old question of What is friction's simple definition?

2 or more different taxa.

∙ Synapomorphy (shared derived character): Most common  

ancestor and shared by 2 or more.

∙ Branch point: shared derived characters, but differences between

species

∙ Sister groups share a common ancestor Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of grand strategy?

Ecology 

Biotic interactions: between living things

Abiotic interactions: Organisms and environment

∙ Organismal Ecology

∙ Population Ecology

∙ Community Ecology

∙ Ecosystems Ecology

Environmental Impact on Organism Distribution 

∙ Temp

o Most important… it affects biological processes o Greenhouse Effect vs. Global Warming

∙ Wind (wind chill increases heat loss)

∙ Availability of water and light (different amts. needed) ∙ Salinity

∙ pH

Climate Factors 

1. Prevailing weather pattern

2. Atmospheric circulation

3. Global Patterns

4. Elevation

5. Land Mass Proximity

There are 10 biomes

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