BIO 112 Study Guide 2 Test Date: 3.20.18
POPULATIONS EVOLVE, Microevolution (in a species) vs. Macroevolution (changes over long periods)
∙ Based on variation, natural selection, genes, and time. ∙ Useful characteristics needed to work
∙ Convergent evolution: Organisms not closely related, similar traits as a result of similar environments
Natural Selection: Process through which evolution occurs People involved:
∙ John Ray: first to carry out thorough study of natural world ∙ Carolus Linnaeus: Created taxonomy classification system ∙ George Buffon: Thought living things changed over time ∙ Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: Acquired characteristics (Giraffe Neck) ∙ Charles Darwin: Study on finches on Galapagos Islands o Was affected by Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology and
We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 fair use exceptions to copyright?
Rev. Thomas Malthus’s essay on population
o Alfred Wallace had same idea as Darwin and Darwin published papers together to share credit
Evidence for Evolution
1. Blend into environment
2. Change over time
3. Experimental evidence is shown
4. Anatomical similarities
5. Useless traits shown
6. Shared developmental pathways
7. DNA similarities shownDon't forget about the age old question of How does an adaptation affect the fitness of a species?
Homologous Genes: 1 gene gives rise to 2 separate ones, Orthologs (different species) vs. Paralogs (same species) Don't forget about the age old question of How is chemical structure of protein different from cho and fats?
Horizontal Gene Transfer: genetic exchange between species Genomic Level: change in chromosome structure and number ∙ Inversion: gene or part of a chromosome is completely flipped Taxonomy
3 Domains: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Binomial nomenclature to name (Genus species) Don't forget about the age old question of What is private for profit?
Phylogenetic Trees: shows evolutionary relationships
∙ Anagenesis: change within a lineage
∙ Cladogenesis: 1 species diverges into 2 or more
∙ Monophyletic Group: all descendants and common ancestor ∙ Paraphyletic Group: common ancestor but not all descendants ∙ Polyphyletic Group: Multiple descendants but no common
∙ Symplesiomorphy (shared primitive character): Inherited from common ancestor that isn’t the most recent one and is shared by Don't forget about the age old question of What is friction's simple definition?
2 or more different taxa.
∙ Synapomorphy (shared derived character): Most common
ancestor and shared by 2 or more.
∙ Branch point: shared derived characters, but differences between
∙ Sister groups share a common ancestor Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of grand strategy?
Biotic interactions: between living things
Abiotic interactions: Organisms and environment
∙ Organismal Ecology
∙ Population Ecology
∙ Community Ecology
∙ Ecosystems Ecology
Environmental Impact on Organism Distribution
o Most important… it affects biological processes o Greenhouse Effect vs. Global Warming
∙ Wind (wind chill increases heat loss)
∙ Availability of water and light (different amts. needed) ∙ Salinity
1. Prevailing weather pattern
2. Atmospheric circulation
3. Global Patterns
5. Land Mass Proximity
There are 10 biomes