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UO / Music / MUS 227 / What program is believed to have first been used in 1974 by bell labs

What program is believed to have first been used in 1974 by bell labs

What program is believed to have first been used in 1974 by bell labs

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MUS 227 Final Study Guide


What program is believed to have first been used in 1974 by bell labs technicians?



I. Music Pieces (click link to go to listen)

∙ Joji Yuasa “Aoi no ue”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTi1Gcab_D4 

∙ Tomita Isao “Debussy, Arabesque No 1”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igHOaMOzzUo 

∙ Yellow Magic Orchestra “Technopolis”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFADf3CW8zI 

∙ Kyoka “23 ISH”  

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9veZ-9YrsAM 

∙ Jose Maceda “Ugnayan”  

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qlrOS3qjsbk 


Does something have to be registered with the copyright office to be protected?



∙ Zhang Xiaofu “Fantasia for the Chinese Bamboo Flute and Electronic  Music 1988-2004”

∙ Biz Markie “Alone Again”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OebqNsNRBtU 

∙ John Oswald “Plunderphonics - DAB”  

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xIWLG-F0Ag 

∙ Danger Mouse “Encore”  

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFd1QvNPKmI 

∙ Gnarls Barkley “Craz https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=GHhD4PD75zY y”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qe500eIK1oA 

∙ Girl Talk “Once Again”  


What are the 4 fair use exceptions to copyright?



o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8MLGufva7pU 

∙ Oliver Messiaen “Ete des belles eaux (Feast of the Beautiful Waters)” o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrYgm5MML58 Don't forget about the age old question of What is it called when unrelated species are adapted to similar environments have similar niches and look similar?

∙ Pierre Henry & Pierre Schaeffer “Symphonie Pour Un Homme Seul  (Symphony for One Man Alone)”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpOD7GQbd8Q 

∙ Les Paul & Mary Ford “How High the Moon” Don't forget about the age old question of How is chemical structure of protein different from cho and fats?

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkGf1GHAxhE 

∙ Kraftwerk “The Robots”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wop47G2qeY 

∙ Radiohead “Idioteque”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-Nymir3q34 

∙ Herbie Hancock “Rockit”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHhD4PD75zY 

∙ Ron Hardy “Sensation”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WSpNvS5fa_E 

∙ Oval “AllesinGedanken”

o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UpVazaj4lH4 

II. Week 10.1

MUS 227 Final Study Guide

∙ Joji Yuasa

o Composer in various styles

 Electronic

 Orchestral

 Chamber

o Member of Jikken Kobo (Experimental Workshop); artist collective that explored new directions in the arts

∙ Tomita Isao We also discuss several other topics like What is a good health system?

o Like Wendy Carlos, Tomita built a career on covering classical  works on monophonic synthesizers

 1st person to import analog synth to Japan

 played Moog III P

o pioneer of “Space Synth Music”

 sounds are often emulated in synth presets

o full time composer for tv, film, & theater prior to making  electronic music

∙ Yellow Magic Orchestra

o Members

 Ryuichi Sakamoto

 Haruomi Hosono

 Yukihiro Takahashi

o Formed in 1978 in Japan

 Among first to use Roland TR-808 drum machine

 Inspired by computer & game culture

 Album Solid State Survivor (1979) won Best Album Award  in Japan in 1980, selling over 2 million records worldwide

∙ Vocoder

o voice + encoder

 developed in 1928 at Bell Labs as a way to encrypt voice  communication

 combining the formamnt qualities of the input (typically  speech) w/ sonic qualities of output (synth)

∙ robotic sounding speech w/ filtering characteristics of

voice & timbre of synthesizer

o Kraftwork pioneered musical use of vocoder

∙ Ryoji Ikeda

o Japanese sound/visual artist & composer based in Paris

o Elaborately orchestrates sound, visuals, materials, physical phenomena, &  mathematical notions into immersive live performances & installations Don't forget about the age old question of What are conservative and non-conservative forces?

∙ Kyoka

o Musician & sound artist based in Berlin & Tokyo

o “broken pop beat w/ experimental yet danceable rhythms”

 studied piano, flute, & shamisen as a child

MUS 227 Final Study Guide

 found interest in tape­recorder functions & bass sounds by recording radio on cassette at young age 

∙ Jose Maceda

o Born in Manila, Philippines If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of grand strategy?

o Studied composition, piano, & ethnomusicology in the US & France

o Worked at GRM studio in Paris w/ Pierre Shcaffer

 Compositions include:

 Pagsamba for 116 instruments

 100 mixed & 25 male voices We also discuss several other topics like What are the types of infectious agents?

 Cassette 100 for 100 cassette players

 Ugnayan for 20 radio stations

 Udlot­Udlot for several hundred to several thousand people

∙ Zhang Xiaofu

o Composer from China

o One of earliest pioneers of electroacoustic music in China

 Professor at Central Conservatory of Music, where he founded the Center  of Electro­acoustic Music of China

 Studied @ Ecole Normale de Musique de Paris & the GRM studio in Paris o Contributions include electroacoustic, symphonic, traditional Chinese orchestral  music, chamber, ballet, & film

III. Week 10.2

∙ Copyright is secured automatically when the work is created & fixed in  a tangible form, such as the first time it is written or recorded. No other action is required to secure copyright protection.

∙ Copyrightable works include

o Literary works

o Musical works

o Dramatic works

o Pantomimes & choreographic works

o Pictorial, graphic, & sculptural works

o Motion pictures / other audiovisual works

o Sound recordings

o Architectural works

∙ Fair use: The Copyright Act of 1976 grants “Fair Use” in the following  situations:

o Criticism

o Comment

o News reporting

o Teaching

o Scholarship

o Research

∙ Sampling Problems

o 1991 Grand Upright Music, LTD vs. Warner Bros Records

MUS 227 Final Study Guide

 landmark ruling in federal court against rapper Biz Markie’s use of Gilbert O’Sullivan’s “Alone Again (Naturally)”  

instantly changed sampling practices.

∙ Court ruled that sampling w/o permission can qualify  

as copyright infringement & judge ordered Markie to  

pay $250,000.

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