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UM - INTL 101 - Class Notes - Week 4

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Schools > University of Michigan > International Studies > INTL 101 > UM - INTL 101 - Class Notes - Week 4

UM - INTL 101 - Class Notes - Week 4

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background image MODULE 3: HUMANITARIAN ACTION Humanitarian Impulse – Reif Imperative – Evans, Annan o Must intervene – imperative to intervene – only way to preserve  dignity Imperialism – Bircort, Ayoob o IE: Superior military force to invade Iraq for underlying  humanitarian reasons Basic Humanitarian Principles Assistance to all based on severity of need o Neutrality Relationship between people giving aid and 
location/situation of place they’re giving it – remaining 
neutral for aid
o Impartiality Nondiscrimination t for aid on faiths, ethnicities etc. o Independence Organizations make humanitarian decisions independently 
of governments that are funding them
ICRC – International Committee for the Red Cross Oldest and most honored – 1863 Only international humanitarian organization mandated by Geneva 
Convention – via Henry Dumas
First given UN observer status International humanitarian law Set of rules seeking to limit damage of armed conflict Major part founding Geneva Conventions Situations of armed conflict Kofi Annan Reading Wars primarily civil Proportion of civilian casualties rising Weapons technology Is the ideal still viable? Media “CNN” Efects  Inevitable constant media penetration afects humanitarian decisions  Humanitarian Aid News Media Policy-Makers Qualification
background image Print and electronic media play most significant role if the crisis 
becomes part of a national dialogue/debate
Media Pros and Cons CON: Distorts ideal, misrepresents delivery, Promotes Competition o Gives attention to those sufering most recently rather than  those who need it most o Distorts that “Western world to the rescue” – 70% of aid given  from own state/country PRO: Stimulates policy dialogue, Impetus to send aid Who Does Humanitarian Work? Coordinated Activity o Governments Allow Access for aid Provide funding for aid o Inter-Governmental Organizations – IGO Coordinate and Implement o Non-Governmental Organizations – NGO Most discretion in terms of which crises they help with and 
Respond with speed, agility, cultural expertise – 
Poor accountability o Businesses Opposite logic – in for profit rather than humanitarian 
Cooperative relationships Not legitimately called humanitarian – not pure intention of
aid w/o profit
o Celebrities, , Religious congregations, volunteers SUMMARY Least predictable – Governments IGO  NGO Businesses Significant Challenges to Humanitarian Action Challenge: Accessing Survivors Delivery of aid thwarted to achieve strategic objective o Domestic opponents  Violation of Geneva Conventions IE: Myanmar
background image o Decolonization  Law on citizenship
o Tensions between Myanmar government and Rohingya people in 
Rakine state escalate o Villages burned, crimes against humanity, many flee
o Aid goes to camps, not restricted areas – misallocated through 
blockage Achieve Access through Military Action Survivors Aid Workers – protection o 5 th  Most dangerous job in world Risks To Aid Workers Confusion of violent citizens/groups between who is military actor and 
aid worker
IE: Afghanistan and Humanitarian Daily Rotations o UN and USAID against 
o US Administration and Pentagon in favor
Achieve Access through “Corridors” Aid Combatants helpedConflict prolonged More Victims PRESENTS HUMANITARIAN DILEMMA Norm: Responsibility to Protect – R2P To maintain basic principles Three pillars/principles o State has responsibility to provide for citizens
o International community has responsibility to assist state in 
provisions o International community has responsibility to protect citizens  whether state government agrees or not Criteria for Activating R2P o Just Cause – severity 
o Right Intention – is primary intention to alleviate sufering?
o Final Resort – Though of everything else and all other options 
deemed unsuccessful o Legitimate Authority – UNSC – gridlock and disagreement
o Proportional Means – do minimum sufficient to afect change
o Reasonable Prospect – likely to make things better rather than 
worse KENYA o 2007-2008 Post-election violence – 1000 victims – 600,000 flee
o UN invoked R2P
o African Union coalition acts as mediator
o Peaceful 2013 elections
Challenge: Responsibility Sharing 1951 Convention on Status of Refugees Cornerston  non-return
background image GAP  “Refugee Crisis Refugee Person o Person with a legitimate fear of persecution who’s is outside of  their country and unable to avail themselves of protection within 
a sphere of international responsibility 
RESPONSE – Dublin Regulation I,II,III o Country of first arrival is country responsible for accepting or  rejecting asylum claim Wave of the Future? Overcomes some access barriers Overcomes some resource gaps Digital Humanitarian Challenges Volume of information Validity of information Privacy and Security of Survivors Advances Crowd-Computing Verifying with artificial intelligence Unmanned Aerial Vehicles – UAV Discussion – 3/8/18 – Humanitarian Action Why undertake humanitarian action? Impulse o Only help when requested to do so Imperative o Must intervene because it is the only way to preserve the dignity  of thos experiencing hardship Annan Imperialism o Humanitarian action has been transformed into a form of  imperialism and is a front for initiating regime change Bircort, Ayoob READING: Reflections on Intervention – Kofi Annan – policy perspective Chapter VII of UN Charter o States have responsibility to protect citizens
o International community has responsibility to support states in 
protecting o If a state fails and peaceful measures fail, the international  community has a responsibility to intervene READING: Ayoob – Academic perspective

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School: University of Michigan
Department: International Studies
Course: Introduction to International Studies
Professor: Greta Uehling
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Human, rights, and Humanitarian
Name: Module 3: Humanitarian Intervention and Human Rights
Description: Human Rights Lectures and readings
Uploaded: 03/19/2018
17 Pages 59 Views 47 Unlocks
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