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OHIO / Engineering / BIOS 1000 / Define predator.

Define predator.

Define predator.

Description

School: Ohio University
Department: Engineering
Course: Animal Diversity
Professor: Patrick hassett
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Bio, Biology, animal, animals, Diversity of Life, Animal Science, Animal communication, worms, and symbiosis mutualism commensalism parasitism consortium lichens mycobiont photobiont germfree gnotobiotic ruminant fermentation primary secondary endpsymbionts aphids termites shipworms corals
Cost: 25
Name: week 8 notes 3/5-3/9
Description: Notes the week before spring break!!
Uploaded: 03/20/2018
3 Pages 40 Views 1 Unlocks
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                        ADAPTATIONS

  • Smooth surfaces are difficult to grip
  • Also protects mantles that corner shells in flamingo tongue / snail / cowrie
  • Spines and projections make handling difficult
  • Thickening of shell opening strengthens shell against attack
  • Corrugations / teeth along opening reduce size of opening
  • Rows of productions make it hard for gripping and adds weight
  • Projections also provide stability and help anchor shell in sand
  • Also hard for fish to swallow with projections

Exposure to sun is a problem for intertidal mollusks → tropicsDon't forget about the age old question of What is state - owned media?

Shells often:

  • Light colored
  • More pointed
  • Oriented towards sun

        Can keep shell 5-6We also discuss several other topics like What is the mammalian circulatory system?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between seasonality and business cycles?

Sun Exposure

        Ridges of shell can increase surface area to allow re - radiation of heat

In sun zone drag is an important foretor

        Limpets build to withstand greater stress than strongest waves will impartIf you want to learn more check out How long is a circadian rhythm?

Last factor to be considered is predation

Predator: oyster drill

Oyster drill uses radula to drill hares in shells to prey on other mollusks

Predator: powerful linerage pincers of bex crabIf you want to learn more check out How do you illustrate hydrazone formation?

Claws chip away at opening shell

Predator: fish

Some fish have a tooth to chip at shells

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the formula in finding the area of surface?

3/15/18

Phylum Annelida - “little rings” → segmented

  • ⅔ are marine
  • Segmented
  • Setal (chaetae) often present → bristles
  • Many habitats and lifestyles
  • Even young have bristles

Peristalsis - longitudinal “inching” movement

Biological Contributions

  • Bioturbators - aerate and increase drainage of soil
  • Recycle nutrients - poop
  • Reattachment of limbs and tissue grafts - leeches
  • Eaten by many others - key in food chain
  • Fish bait
  • Important animals in deep ocean

  • Class Oligochaeta - Earthworms
  • Class Polychaeta - Bristle worms
  • Class Hirudinea - Leeches

Oligochaeta - Earthworms

  • Herbibores
  • Setae (underside)
  • Clitellum → smooth ring no sementation on earthworrms
  • Great for many soild but only where they are native

Many / most Earthworms we now see are not native to the US

  • Can ruin forests (north US forests)
  • Spread by humans

Required leaf litter reading

Hirudinea - Leeches

  • Clitellum during reproduction season
  • No setae
  • All carnivorous, most parasitic
  • 2 suckers
  • Most freshwater
  • Medicinal leeches secrete an anticoagulant and an aesthetic
  • Marine (very few usually on fish)

Polychaeta - Bristle worms

  • Marine
  • Parapodia with setae - freshly appendages w/ bristles
  • No clitellum
  • 2 groups: mobile and sedentary

Special Reproduction strategy in some polychaetes

        Atoke and Epitoke - swarming

        Moon phase for reproduction

Atoke - worm

Epitoke - reproductive segments released to reproduce w/ others

Mobile polychaetes

  • Parapolia w/ setae are well developed
  • Well developed head end

Sedentary Polychaetes

  • Borrow / tube dwellers
  • Filter breeders
  • Parapodia are highly specialized or absent

Vent communities

  • Hydrothermal or “hot” vents or black smokers
  • Mostly along mid - ocean ridges and trenches
  • Famous beard worms
  • Absorb nutrients from water and have symbiotic bacteria (no digestive system)

Molluscs part A

Phylum Mollusca

  • Radula ( in most) - sort of like teeth
  • Ventral muscular foot
  • Manhole ( in all) secretes a shell( in most)

        Some Radula are used for scraping algae

Biological Importance

  • Food source
  • Pearls
  • Garden pests
  • Host for parasites
  • New drugs for treatment

Mollusca Classes

  • Polyplacophora - many shells
  • Gastropoda - one or no shells
  • Bivalna - Z shells
  • Cephalopoda - highly reduced to no shells

Polyplacophora - chitons, 8 plates - oval

  • Wave actions
  • All marine
  • Broad foot - attachment to rocks
  • Scrapes algae using Radula (teeth)

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