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FAU - DEP 3053 - Psychology of Human Development Exam 2 study guide -

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FAU - DEP 3053 - Psychology of Human Development Exam 2 study guide -

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: OTHER
Course: Psychology of Human Development
Professor: Lauren Mavica
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology
Name: Psychology of Human Development Exam 2 study guide
Description: This study guide has definitions for all of the possible vocabulary words that will be used in the fill in the blank portion of our test. The second part of the study guide contains the lecture notes from chapters 6-9.
Uploaded: 03/20/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 11 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Psychology of Human Development  Exam 2 Study Guide *Exam #2 will be on Thursday March 22 nd , don’t forget a blue scantron. Like last  Exam there will be a fill in the blank component over some of the words below as 
well as multiple choice. This exam is over chapters 6-9. Chapter 9 will be covered on
the Tuesday before the exam so will not be included in this study guide. I will post 
my notes from that class In a separate document Tuesday night. Good luck!! 😊 
Habituation – boredom, loss of interest in repetitive stimulation. Ex: a baby looking
away from an image on a screen
Preferential Looking- present two stimuli side by side, preference for one 
stimulus over the other indicates that the infant can discriminate them. Ex: newborn
vision is unfocused and so they don’t show preference over a blurry or focused 
picture
Brain evoked potentials- electrodes in a cap worn by the infant to measure 
electrical activity in the brain, we can use this as a method of understanding a 
baby’s perception of a stimuli
Operant Conditioning – change the probability of a behavior through 
reinforcement. Ex: training a dog to sit with the reward of a treat
Phoneme- category of speech sounds. Infants discriminate phonemes from all 
languages
Cataracts- yellowing of the lens, usually due to exposure to UV, common, can be 
treated with Lasik surgery 
Glaucoma- fluid pressure leads to nerve damage, less common, optic nerve 
damage, loss of vision starts on the outward and moves inward. If caught early 
enough medicine can reduce the pressure
Assimilation- interpret environment in terms of existing schemes. Taking new 
information in and fit it into a scheme. Ex: child knows a cat vs a dog but when they 
see a cow for the first time they mistake it for a dog.
Accommodation – change in schemes to make them more consistent with the 
environment. Ex: parent corrects the child’s mistake
Sensorimotor stage – 0-2 years, thinking only in terms of here and now, whatever
child is currently seeing/hearing is the only thing they can think about
Preoperational stage- 2-7 years, can think about past/future events but often 
illogical. Can think about things that aren’t happening at the moment 
Concrete operations stage – 7-11 years, logical thinking about concreate objects 
but no abstraction
background image Formal operations stage – 11-adulthood, abstract scientific thinking Primary circular reaction – is a substage of the sensorimotor stage, 1-4 months, 
repetition of behaviors involving the baby’s body that leads to interesting results, 
Ex: thumb sucking
Secondary circular reaction – is a substage of the sensorimotor stage, 4-8 
months, repetition of behaviors involving external objects. Ex: splash water in bath 
tub or smacking a toy on the table
Object permanence – can think of things even if they are not visible, but still 
make A not B error
Conservation – understanding that the physical properties of an object remain the 
same despite changes in appearance
Centration – focus on only one aspect of a situation Reversibility -  the ability to recognize that numbers or objects can be changed 
and returned to their original condition.
Egocentrism -inability to distinguish the perspective of another from your own. Ex:
3 mountains problem, a child struggles to distinguish what a person on one side of 
the table might see versus what they see.
Private speech-  internalized instruction for self guidance, sometimes talk to 
yourself through a problem
Zone of proximal development -set of skills that a child can perform with 
assistance but not alone. All the skills children have been working on. Ex: child tries 
to ride a bike for the first time without training wheels, the child can do this with a 
little help from an adult
Sensory register – brief representation of presented sights and sounds Short-term (or working) memory – conscious, limited capacity component of 
memory, selecting up to 7 pieces of information to take in while old items are 
displaced when new items are added
Long-term memory – limitless, permanent store of memories, the system we want
to get our information into. 
Rehearsal – repeat information over and over again Organization – group similar information together Elaboration – forms images to link information Metamemory - knowledge and awareness of your own memory, including the 
contents and processes of your memory
Recognition – easiest type of retrieval, decided whether something has been seen 
before. Ex: multiple choice exam
background image Recall – memory for information that is no longer present, is the hardest type of 
retrieval, requires one to actively search memory for the relevant information
Implicit Memory – facilitated processing of a stimulus as a result of prior exposure 
to that stimulus. Often occurs in the absence of awareness
Explicit Memory – deliberate attempts to remember an earlier event, typically 
tested using recall and recognition tests
Reliability -  refers to the extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in
its measures. For example, a weight scale can be judged reliable if measures for a 
25-pound weight do not vary over time or change 
Validity - If the test does indeed measure what it is intended to measure, Tests that
are valid are also reliable. However a test might be reliable without it being valid. 
Cumulative deficit hypothesis - refers to the notion that impoverished 
environments inhibit intellectual growth and that these inhibiting effects accumulate
over time.
Chapter 6 “Sensation vs Perception” Two theories of human perception 1. Empiricist theory (John Locke)  Perceptual abilities are learned through experience Babies perceive the world differently from the way we do 2. Nativist Theory (Rene Descartes) Perceptual abilities are built into us Babies and adults perceive the world the same way *These theories were hard to prove because there wasn’t an experimental way to 
test them
Methods used to test infant perception 1. Habituation (boredom) Loss of interest in repetitive stimulation Dishabituation- renewed interest in new stimuli, ex: hearing a new 
song on the radio
Can use habituation to test because babies must know the difference 
between a new and old stimulus
Supports behavioral methods because we can observe babies eye 
movement
2. Preferential looking Present two stimuli side by side Preference for one stimulus over the other indicates that the infant can
discriminate them, ex: Newborn vision is unfocused, and they don’t 

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School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: OTHER
Course: Psychology of Human Development
Professor: Lauren Mavica
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology
Name: Psychology of Human Development Exam 2 study guide
Description: This study guide has definitions for all of the possible vocabulary words that will be used in the fill in the blank portion of our test. The second part of the study guide contains the lecture notes from chapters 6-9.
Uploaded: 03/20/2018
11 Pages 83 Views 66 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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