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PENN STATE / Psychology / PSY 100 / What is the Embryonic Stage?

What is the Embryonic Stage?

What is the Embryonic Stage?

Description

​Chapter 6


What is the Embryonic Stage?



Be familiar with the stages of prenatal development 

● Prenatal development:

○ Conception: sperm meets egg

● Germinal Stage: (2 weeks) conception, cell division and uterine implantation ○ Blastocyst (cells dividing): hours after conception

○ Implantation of blastocyst: 6 days after conception

○ Won’t show on a pregnancy test at this stage

● Embryonic Stage: (2-8 weeks post conception) : major organs are formed ○ 14 days post conception

○ 5 weeks post conception: heart beats, size of kidney bean

○ First organ to form and work is the heart

○ 8 weeks post conception: all major organs formed

● Fetal Stage: (the rest of the pregnancy) weeks 9-40, continued growth and development of all major organs

○ Fetus 5-6 months pregnancy (baby can’t live outside of mother's body) ○ Fetus 8 months pregnancy (baby should be head down ready to be born)


What is the Germinal Stage?



​Be familiar with Harry Harlow’s research 

● Harry Harlow: (Attachment/Deprivation study)

● Monkeys were reared by wire “mothers”. One mother was covered with a soft cloth, the other was not. Monkeys clung to the soft cloth mother and rejected the wire mother, even when the wire mother provided all the food. This is evidence that “contact” comfort is necessary for attachment.

● Other monkeys were reared for the first 6 months of their life with no contact at all (social deprivation). Even though they were exposed to normal parenting after the 6 months, the monkeys showed severely abnormal social behavior throughout their lives. They made terrible mates and parents (some even killed their infants). This is evidence of the importance of an early attachment relationship.

● Harlow’s study applied to humans: research shows that touching and massaging infants leads to significant physical and emotional benefits


What is the Fetal Stage?



● Studies on severely neglected/abused children show that they continue to have trouble forming attachments late in their lives.

Know Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, including the key developmental tasks achieved in each stage Don't forget about the age old question of What is Allometric?

1. Sensorimotor Stage:​ (birth- 2 years) infants develop a sense of the world through their senses and motor activity

○ Object Permanence: (6-9 months old) the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are out of view

○ Separation anxiety occurs because of object permanence

2. Preoperational Stage: ​(2-7 yrs) the child cannot perform logical mental functions (or operations), but does think symbolically (using words and sentences) ● Before logic Don't forget about the age old question of oprestissimo

● Egocentrism:​ the preoperational child is completely self-centered in his/her thinking- cannot think of things from another persons perspective

● Animism: ​the preoperational child’s belief that inanimate objects are alive (the moon is alive and following them, the stuffed animal is alive)- imagination is very active in this stage

3.​ Concrete Operational Stage: ​(7-11 yrs) children at this stage can perform concrete logical thinking

● Reversibility: ​ can reverse operations (Example: 7+2=9 can be reversed to 9-2=7)

● Conservation:​ ability to recognize that volume remains unchanged even when put in different sized and shaped containers

4. Formal Operational Stage: (​11 yrs and beyond) children at this stage become capable of abstract thought and hypothetical (what if..?)

● Adolescent Egocentrism:​ believing that they are the focus of everyone’s attention (self-consciousness stems from this)

○ Imaginary Audience:​ belief that everyone is watching everything they do and that others are thinking of them

○ Personal Fable​: intense investment in their own thoughts believing that no one else has ever experienced what they are going through

● Piaget saw puberty as the highest level of development

Know Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development 

● Trust Versus Mistrust

○ 0-1 yrs old

○ Infants learn to trust that their needs will be met or they learn to distrust the world around them We also discuss several other topics like csu minor in nutrition

● Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt

○ 1-3 years old

○ Children learn to exercise their will, to control themselves, and to develop a sense of autonomy or they learn to feel shame and to doubt themselves

○ Really about toilet training, if it goes well you gain sense of autonomy, if not you gain a sense of shame and doubt

● Initiative Versus Guilt

○ 3-6 years

○ Children learn to initiate activities and interact with other children or they learn to feel guilty at their attempts at independence or from unexpected consequences

● Industry Versus Inferiority

○ 6-12 years

○ Children begin to develop competency (industry) and skills in various areas or they learn to feel inferior and insecure about their achievements

○ Industry- being industrious and working hard, if not doing well you feel inferior

● Identity Versus Role Confusion

○ 12-20 years

○ Adolescents learn to see themselves as unique with their own sense of ideas and value or they feel confused as to their purpose and role in life We also discuss several other topics like cs211 pa5

○ Identity crisis ex: political beliefs

● Intimacy Versus Isolation

○ 20-30 years

○ Young adults learn to form close bonds and interpersonal relationships or they learn to feel isolated and alone and avoid close contacts with others

○ Generally, the younger the higher the divorce rate

○ Intimacy he saw as the health option

● Generativity Versus Stagnation

○ 30-65 years

○ Adults work fo the common good, are productive members of society, raise children ect. Or they become self-centered and inactive

● Ego Integrity Versus Despair

○ 65-death

○ Older people reflect on whether there has been meaningful and worthwhile and feel either satisfaction/integrity or regret/despair

Be familiar with Kuber-Ross’ stages of death and dying 

1. Denial: strong resistance to the idea of death and dying, non-acceptance of a loved-one’s death

2. Anger: “why me”

3. Bargaining: striking deals for more time

4. Depression: sadness, guilt associated with impending death

5. Acceptance: after the depression lifts, the person finally realizes and

accepts impending death and being inevitable, person generally feels at peace with the situation Chapter 7

Distinguish between sensation and perception 

-Sensation: information coming in to your brain

-Perception: organizing and interpreting the information We also discuss several other topics like amanda perry csuf

○ Example: your ear receives a stimulus in the form of sound waves, you perceive that your favorite song is on the radio

Understand the absolute threshold and the difference threshold 

● Absolute Threshold: the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected (the weakest detectable stimulus) people can detect about 50% of the time

● Difference Threshold: the smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, subject to whatever the original stimulus was

○ Weber’s Law:

■ The Difference Threshold between two things depends on the strength of the original stimulus (the stronger the original stimulus, the bigger the

changes must be in order for them to be noticed, yet changes in weak

stimuli are very noticeable)

Understand how the human visual system works (including the parts of the eye and how they function) 

● Light is composed of waves that give us:

○ Hue: ​wavelength of light gives color

○ Brightness: ​intensity of light

○ Saturation: ​complexity of light (gives us shades of colors)

● Parts of the Eye

○ Cornea: protective coating on the surface of the eye

○ Iris: the colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters ○ Pupil: the opening of the iris (black part), doesn’t move iris does

○ Lens: the transparent portion of the eye that focuses light onto the retina (flips image upside down)

○ Retina: image falls here, sensory receptor cells are here We also discuss several other topics like rutgers biology

● How the Eye Works

● The retina has two types of receptor cells:

○ Rods​: receptor cells that code information about light and dark (located outside the center of the retina- 120 million cells each eye) give us night vision

○ Cones: ​receptor cells that code information about light, dark, and color (located at the center of the retina- 6 million cells each eye)

● Fovea: the spot where the cones are concentrated (images focused directly onto the fovea are clearest because of the high concentration of cones

● Optic Nerve: the nerve that carries visual neural messages to the brain (the area where the optic nerve attaches contains no rods or cones and therefore is a blind spot)

Understand the two theories of color vision 

● Trichromatic Theory​:​ The first level of color processing:

○ There are three different kinds of cones in the eye and that each respond to light in either red, blue, or green wavelengths therefore all sensations of colors result from stimulating a combination of these three cones

● The Opponent-Process Theory​:​ second level of color processing

○ In addition to three types of cones (one for red, blue and green), there are “opponent-process mechanisms” which respond to either the red-green or the yellow-blue, black-white wavelengths

Understand the Gestalt principles of visual organization (ex: proximity, similarity etc.) and the rules of perceptual constancy 

● The 4 Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization:

1. Proximity: things that are close together are grouped together in the mind as if they belong together

2. Closure: incomplete figures tend to be seen as complete because our brain fills in missing information

3. Similarity: similar things are seen as being related

4. Continuation: images are seen in ways that produce smooth continuation a. Gestalt: overall theme, big picture

● Visual/perceptual Constancy: the perception of objects remains unchanged, even when the sensation of the object is changing

○ Brightness Constancy: we understand the brightness of an object does not change even when the object is dimly lit

○ Color Constancy: we understand that colors do not change despite different conditions of light

○ Size Constancy: size does not change

○ Shape Constancy: shape does not change

Know the key monocular and binocular depth cues

● Monocular Cues: cues in the environment that suggest depth and can be seen by only one eye

○ Linear perspective: parallel lines appear to come together as they go off in the distance (railroad tracks)

● Binocular Cues: uses both eyes

○ Convergence: eyes angle inward as an object gets closer to us

○ Retinal Disparity: because each retina is a few inches apart, they have slightly different images and this helps with depth perception. (This is how 3D movies are made)

Be familiar with pain-gate theory of pain perception and the causes and treatments for “phantom limb pain” 

● Gate-Control theory of pain: there are neural gates (endorphins) that control the transmission of pain impulses. The gate can be open (slow pain messages are not blocked, therefore we experience pain) or closed (slow pain messages are blocked, and we do not experience

○ Ex: stubbing your toe

● Phantom Limbs/Phantom Pain: amputees often feel the amputated limb as if it is still there and sometimes feel pain in the missing limb

● Theory: “muscle memory” – the neurons in charge of missing limb don’t know that it is gone – but eyes see that the limb is gone – mismatch between eyes and neurons ● As of July 2009, there are 904 soldiers who have lost limbs in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

● Mirror-Image Therapy

○ Allows the eyes to see the missing limb as “working”, stops mismatch between neurons and eyes

Chapter 8

Understand Classical Conditioning and be able to apply the terms to examples 

● The story of Pavlov and his dogs lead to a breakthrough in learning theory that is now called Classical Conditioning

○ Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS​): stimulus that can elicit an unlearned response (an instinctual stimulus),

○ Unconditioned Response (UCR​): an unlearned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus stimulus (an instinctive or inborn reaction)

○ Conditioned Stimulus (CS​): stimulus that elicits a response as a result of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a learned stimulus)

○ Conditioned Response (CR​): response that is similar or identical to the unconditioned response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus (a learned response)

Understand Operant Conditioning and be able to apply the terms to examples Reinforcement

Positive Reinforcement

● Positive Reinforcement: when the consequence of a behavior leads to an increase​ in the probability that the behavior will occur again ( + given a reward)

● Positive Reinforcer: the positive consequence that is presented (not the person presenting it)

● Behavior doesn’t have to be good, simply looking at if the behavior is getting stronger or reduced

Negative Reinforcement

● Negative Reinforcement: An increase​ in behavior (reinforcement) that occurs as a result of the removal​ or avoidance of a aversive (bad) event

● Compare Negative & Positive Reinforcement

○ Reward student for good grades

○ What can you give t​ he student as a reward for good grades? (positive reinforce) ■ Money

○ What can you take away f​ rom the student as a reward ​for good grades? ■ Chores, debt

Punishment

Punishment: when the consequence of a behavior leads to a decrease in the probability that the behavior will occur again (the opposite of reinforcement)

○ Positive Punishment: presenting/adding an aversive/bad stimulus, something given

■ Ex: hitting, yelling, rat getting shocked in skinner box

○ Negative Punishment: taking away/subtracting a good stimulus

■ Ex: take away toys, car, video games

Be familiar with schedules of reinforcement 

● Continuous Reinforcement Schedule: the reinforcer is given every time ● Fixed Ratio Schedule: the reinforcer is given only after a specified number of responses​ (Example: a seamstress gets a paycheck each time she makes 6 dresses) ● Variable Ratio: the reinforcer is given after a varying number of responses ​(Example: on the average of every 6th time, slot machines)

○ Give dog a treat at different times but it will average to every 6th time. Person understands the reward is coming so they do it alot

● Fixed Interval Schedule: the reinforcer is given after a fixed amount of time​ (Example: every 5 minutes, a piece of food is given to a dog doing tricks, getting paid per hour) ● Variable Interval Schedule: the reinforcer is given after a variable amount of time (Example: the dog is given food on the average of every 5 minutes)

Be familiar with the “Bobo” doll experiment 

Children watched

1. An adult beating up the doll

2. An adult being nice to the doll (prosocial behavior)

3. Nothing

Children modeled what they saw (beat up the doll, were nice to the doll or were neutral to the doll)

Chapter 9

Understand the 3 Box Stage Model of Memory (the features of STM, LTM and sensory memory) 

● Level 1 of the Three Stage Model

● Sensory Memory

○ Contains raw sensations, prior to perception

○ Very large capacity

○ Material here only briefly

■ Iconic Memory: a brief visual “photo” of what you are seeing (lasts only a fraction of a second)

■ Echoic Memory: a brief auditory memory of what you are hearing (lasts 3-4 seconds)

● Level 2 of the Three Stage Model

● Short Term Memory (STM)

○ Very limited capacity (7+/- chunks of info)

○ Very limited time (approx 30 sec)

○ Can keep info here longer with rehearsal

○ Can store more info here with chunking

● Level 3 of the Three Stage Model

● Long Term Memory (LTM)

○ Theoretically unlimited storage

○ Detail level varies

○ Info may be permanent, but can be distorted

○ Can feed back into STM

Distinguish between procedural, semantic, and episodic memory ● There are three different types of long term memories

1. Procedural Memory

a. Memories of common physical procedures/muscle memory

b. Mostly accessed implicitly (without thinking)

c. Highly robust to amnesia (not affected)

2. Episodic Memory- ​memory of things that we have personally experienced (personal episodes)

3. Semantic Memory - ​memory of general knowledge, facts, word meanings (increases as you get older)

What areas of the brain are crucial to memory? 

-Hippocampus: the “gateway” to memory, the “save” button, processes memories from STM into LTM

○ Used for explicit memory (recalling events, words, smells or sights)

○ Transferred while we sleep

-The Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia: stores implicit memories (automatic), such as classically conditioned responses and motor movements (procedural memories) -Amygdala: connects emotions to memories

Distinguish between Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia 

○ Two kinds of amnesia:

○ Anterograde- inability to learn new memories, but still have old memories ■ More common form (10 second Tom)

○ Retrograde- inability to recall old memories

■ Less common form (Soap Opera Amnesia)

Understand conceptual networks 

○ Memories are stored and retrieved by connecting them to other memories ○ Your brain instantaneously sifts through memory files called Conceptual Networks

○ Memories are prone to reconstruction because of how complex our conceptual networks are

○ Retrieval example: Is a canary a bird?

Chapter 12

Be familiar with some of the body systems that control body fat and weight gain ○ Brain is #1 organ in determining hunger

■ Leptin: a hormone that decreases appetite

■ Insulin: hormone that lowers glucose and stores energy as fat

■ Glucose: sugar that cells require for energy

■ Ghrelin: hunger-arousing hormone emitted by an empty stomach

Distinguish between Anorexia and Bulimia 

○ Anorexia Nervosa

■ Underweight by 10-15% (of lowest healthy BMI)

■ Usually achieved by a severe restriction in diet and excessive exercise ■ Distorted body perception

■ Usually begins in adolescence

■ Almost always female (1-4% of females ages 12-40 will have anorexia) ■ The DEADLIEST mental illness on the planet

○ Bulimia Nervosa

■ Maintain a normal body weight

■ Binging (thousands of calories in one sitting) and purging of food ■ Purging consists of self-induced vomiting, laxatives and/or excessive exercise

Distinguish between passionate and companionate love 

○ Passionate Love vs. Companionate Love

■ Passionate love lasts about 2 years

■ Companionate love is usually what occurs after an extended period of time, which isn’t a bad love but it you have “less of a high”

Understand Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

○ In order to reach the top of the pyramid, you must fulfill all of the needs below

Understand the attachment styles discussed in class 

○ Attachment Theory

■ Secure: rarely jealous, don’t fear abandonment

■ Anxious-Ambivalent: agitated, worried about abandonment

■ Avoidant: distrusting, avoid closures

Be familiar with different methods of research in human sexuality and the findings of these studies 

Motives for Sex

○ Alfred Kinsey: (1950s) pioneering work on human sexuality (survey research) ■ People were engaging in behaviors that most thought were “taboo” (not supposed to do it)

■ Women are sexual too

■ Helped men and women to better understand each other

○ Masters and Johnson: (1960s) sexual laboratories

■ Mapped out the physiology of sex and orgasm

■ Asserted that female and male sexuality is equal

■ May have a problem with their sample of research subjects (volunteer bias)

○ Sexual Response Cycle

1. Excitement

2. Plateau

3. Orgasm

4. Resolution

a. Refractory period for males only

○ Gender Differences in Sexuality

■ Women are capable of multiple orgasms

■ Men engage in more fantasy and masturbation than women (even when such behavior is prohibited)

■ Men’s sexual desire is more often linked to aggressive/dominant behavior in the brain

■ Women’s sexual desire is more often linked to nurturing behavior in the brain

○ Culture and Sex

○ Sexual Scripts: sets of rules that say when and what is proper in terms of sexual relations for men and women

■ What are some sexual scripts for young men and women today?

Sexual Orientation

○ What causes sexual orientation?

○ Biological links are inconclusive:

■ Prenatal hormone exposure

■ Differences in hypothalamus (drive center)

■ Sexual orientation is moderately heritable (men) if one twin brother is gay the other has a 54% chance of being gay

○ What about the range of sexual orientation? Hetero – bi – homo

○ What about experimenting in homosexual behavior, but not identifying as gay? ○ Homosexuality is NOT caused by

■ A smothering mother or absent father

■ Same-sex sexual child play (quite common)

■ Lack of proper role models/learning

○ Homosexuality documented in more than 450 other species besides humans (Examples: dolphins, penguins, many primates)

Gender Identity

○ Gender Identity is separate from sexual orientation

■ It is your experience or feeling of being either male or female or

somewhere in between

○ Intersex Conditions can cause gender identity confusion

○ Transgender: (gender dysphoria) intensely uncomfortable with biological gender and strongly identifies with and wants to be the opposite gender

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