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W&M / Psychology / PSY 202 / What is the definition of continuous development?

What is the definition of continuous development?

What is the definition of continuous development?


School: The College of William & Mary
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology as a Social Science
Professor: Constance pilkington
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, and social
Cost: 50
Name: PSYCH 202 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all the material covered since exam 1.
Uploaded: 03/22/2018
11 Pages 245 Views 4 Unlocks

Psychology as a Social Science Exam #2 Study Guide

What is the definition of continuous development?


Development is the study of changes in cognition, physiology, and social behavior over a  lifetime

• Pattern of continuity and change in human capabilities occurring throughout life  including  

o Physical

o Cognitive

o Psychosocial  

The Normative approach is the analysis of lots of data from different age groups to determine  timing of developmental milestones

• Ex. Age at which a child begins to walk is around 12 months old

• Not all normative events are universal—not experienced across all cultures o Ex. age when formal schooling starts

How many chromosomes does sperm have?

Continuous development is a cumulative process in which one builds on existing skills and  Discontinuous development takes place in unique stages that occurs at specific ages. If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between a complicated system and a complex system?

Early Childhood

• Sperm has 22 chromosomes & X or Y and egg has 23 chromosomes

• Each parent contributes one chromosome in each pair  

• 3 layers of cells differentiate into all different tissues

o Sexual differentiation occurs at 7th week

• Environmental factors

o Maternal diet/malnutrition

o Maternal drug use

• Teratogenic agents

o Infectious agents (rubella, cytomegalovirus, varicella, STI's AIDS, toxoplasma,  etc.)

What are the types of infectious agents?

o Physical agents

o Maternal health factors

o Environmental chemicals  

o Alcohol  

▪ Can cross the blood-brain-barrier as well as the placenta with no problem ▪ Fetal alcohol syndrome  If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of poultry?

• Timing of teratogen exposure can determine the extent of deformities o Thalidomide—causes the absence of certain organs, features, etc.

• Other prenatal risks

o Stress, health, financial status, education, lack of social support

Developmental Milestones in the First Year


Toes curl


When the sole of the foot is stroked, the big toe curls towards the  top of the foot and the other toes fan out


A baby will throw back its head, extends its arms and legs, cries,  and then pull its arms and legs back in when startled


Appears to take steps when held upright with its feet touching a  solid surface


The side of a baby’s spine being stroked causes them to twitch their  hips towards the touch


When a finger or any other object is placed in a baby’s hand, it will  grasp it


When the corner of the mouth is stroked or touched, the baby will  turn its head and open its mouth in the direction of where the touch  is coming from


If supine, pressure to both hands causes head to face forward

Tonic neck/Fencer’s

When the head is turned to one side, the arm on that side stretches  out and the other bends at the elbow; resembles a fencer’s position

Doll’s eyes

When baby’s eyes are held open while the head is midline, the eyes  continue to stay in the midline position when head is moved left to  right


Holds hands out if moved towards floor face first

Respiratory Occlusion

When a baby’s airflow is restricted, they pull their head back and  move their hands in a wiping motion. If airway is still blocked, they  will cry

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of glutamate?

2 months

4 months

6 months

1 year


Holds head up

Begins to push up


movements with  arms and legs

Pushes feet down  on hard surfaces

May be able to  

roll over

Hold, shake toy

Sits without  


Supports some  weight when feet  on hard surface

Rocks back and  forth in crawling  position

Gets to sitting  

position w/o being  held

Pull self up

May stand alone  or take a step

Emotional /Social

Begins to smile

Calms self by  

sucking hand

Tries to look at  caregiver



Cries when  

playing stops

Copies other's  


Likes to play

Looks at self in  mirror

Responds to  

others emotions

Shows fear

Has favorite thing,  people, activities

Plays peek-a-boo,  pat-a-cake

If you want to learn more check out What did the experiments of avery macleod and mccarty show?


Attends to faces

Follows faces w/  eyes, turns head

Will show  



familiar people  

and objects at a  distance

Tracks moving  

objects side-to


Brings things to  mouth

Shows curiosity

Reaches for more  things

Passes things  

between hands

Active exploration Copies gestures

Points at things

Follows simple  

instructions ("let it  go")

We also discuss several other topics like Can you grow things in dirt?

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood

• Jean Piaget

o Believed children’s incorrect answers showed developmental cognitive stages  (stage theory—4 stages)

o Construct their world in stages We also discuss several other topics like What does it mean for a market to fail?

o Children use schemas/cognitive frameworks (developed in 2 ways)

▪ Assimilation

1. Incorporate (“fold”) new info into existing knowledge or use  

current schema to deal with new situations

2. Schema DOESN’T change

a. Adults dealing with conflict in new relationships the same  

way as the past

▪ Accommodation  

1. Individuals ADJUST and CHANGE existing schema to deal with  

new experience

2. Schemas DO change

a. Infant is selective about which things to suck on

o He primarily based his theories on case studies involving children he had worked  with before

o Children many not move through these stages a rigidly as described

Sensorimotor stage  

(0-2 years old)

World experienced through senses and actions—knowledge of  world is limited because it based on physical  


Object permanence—knowing that an objects still exists, even  if it’s hidden

Pre-operational stage

(2-7 years old)

Use words and images to represent things, but lack logical  reasoning and it’s non-reversible

Egocentrism—inability to see a situation from another  person’s point of view; assumes other people see, hear, and  feel exactly the same as them

Language develops, use of symbols common, and memory and  imagination are developed

Concrete operational stage (7-12 years old)

Understand concrete events and analogies logically; perform  arithmetical operations

Characterized by the seven types of conservation

• Number, length, liquid, mass, area, weight, volume Mental actions are reversible

Formal operational stage (12+ years old)

Understand world through hypothetical and scientific thinking  Abstract logic and moral reasoning

Formal operations and abstract reasoning is utilized

Information Processing Theory

• Individuals encode, manipulate, monitor information and create strategies for handling it • Contrasts with Piaget because it’s not a stage theory

o Concerned with the emergence of higher order cognitive skills like executive  function and working memory (associated with the frontal lobe and is the most  sophisticated)

• Executive function is higher order, complex mental processes

o Predicts increased…

▪ School readiness

▪ Academic success at all levels

▪ Social cognition

▪ Theory of mind

▪ Psych health

▪ Earnings

o Decreased…

▪ Risk taking

▪ Drop-out rates

▪ Drug use

Temperament Theory

• Underlying biologically based (heritable) pattern of behavior which is relatively invariant  across time and situations

• Develops in early childhood

Longitudinal studies

Observe one group of participants  

repeatedly over time; easy, quick,  



• Thomas, et al. (1970)

• Jerome Kagan et al. (1999)

Cross-sectional studies

Compare groups of participants of differing  ages at a single point in time. More sensitive  to developmental changes

Attachment Theory

• Theory describing the close emotional bond between an infant and caregiver • Establishes social and emotional pattern for future relationships

• Researchers  

o Harry Harlow

▪ Is attachment due to food or emotional support?

1. 8 monkeys separated from mothers and looked at preference  

for cloth “moms” vs. wire “moms”  

o John Bowlby

Primary Carer's Behavior  

Towards Child

Child's "Working  

Model" of Itself

Positive and  



o Mary Ainsworth

Unloved and  Rejected


Angry and  Confused


▪ Strange Situation Task tests for…

Secure (70%)

Child prefers parent over a stranger and are happy to  see then when they return to a room

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent  (15%)

Child tend to show clingy behavior, but then reject the  attachment figure’s attempts to interact with them

Insecure-avoidant (15%)

Child is unresponsive to parent, doesn’t use them as a  secure base, and doesn’t care if the parent leaves the  room


Behave oddly in Strange Situation Task; run around  room in an erratic manner or try to run away from the  caregiver when they return

• Secure attachment predicts many good social outcomes

• Doesn’t account for cultural variations

• Can't account for temperament or genetics shared by most caregivers of children PERSONALITY 

Individual's unique and enduring cognitive, affective, and behavioral characteristics

• Explicit

• Testable, scientifically verifiable

• Acceptably useful system for investigation of personality

The four basic theory groups are psychodynamic, trait, humanist, and socio-cognitive Psychodynamic theories describe personality as interaction of conscious and unconscious forces

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

Many contributions and heavily influential in many disciplines Described the useful stage theory of personality

Developed psychoanalyst school

• Coincided with functionalists and structuralists

Carl Jung (1875-1961)

Analytical psychology

Collective unconscious  

Extroversion and introversion

Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

Individual psychology

Birth order shapes personality

Freud's stages

• Conscious—contact with outside world

• Preconscious—material just beneath surface of awareness

• Unconscious—well below surface of awareness and hard to retrieve

− Id—pleasure principle, primary-process thinking

▪ Never surfaces to the conscious

− Ego—reality principle, secondary-process thinking

− Superego—moral imperatives

Defense mechanisms  

• Reduce anxiety and distort reality





Refusing to accept real events  because they're unpleasant

Refusing to admit a substance  abuse problem


Transferring inappropriate urges or  behaviors onto a more acceptable  or less threating target

Taking out one's frustrations with  one person on another person


Attributing unacceptable desires to  others

Cheating on your significant other  because you think they're cheating


Justifying behaviors by substituting  acceptable reasons for less

acceptable real reasons

Saying you failed a test because the  teacher doesn't like you



Reducing anxiety by adopting  beliefs contrary to your own beliefs

A mother who has a child she  doesn't want becomes very  

protective of the child


Returning to coping strategies for  less mature stages of development

A child suddenly starts to wet the  bed after years of not doing so


Suppressing painful memories and  thoughts

A child who was abused by a  parent can't remember the events,  but has trouble forming  



Redirecting unacceptable desires  through socially acceptable  


Taking a walk/run when angry with  someone

Psychosexual development

• Come from Id and if child isn't properly nurtured, can result in fixation at that stage as  adults

Oral stage  

(birth-1 year)

Pleasure is focused on the mouth

Weaning from the bottle or breast is  a major conflict

Smoking, drinking, overeating, nail  biting

Anal stage

(1-3 years)

Find pleasure in their bowel and  bladder movements

Toilet training is a major conflict

Can become obsessed with  

neatness and order, stingy and  stubborn (parents are strict with  toilet training)

Can also become messy, careless,  disorganized, and prone to  

outbursts (parents are lenient with  toilet training)

Phallic stage

(3-6 years)

Recognize the difference between  boys and girls

Erogenous zone—genitals  

Oedipus/Electra complex—desire  for sexual involvement with parent  of opposite sex

Vain and overly ambitious  


Latency period

(6-12 years)

Sexual feelings are dormant as  children focus on other pursuits

Genital stage

(12+ years)

Sexual reawakening as the  

incestuous urges resurface

These urges are redirected to other,  more socially acceptable partners

Erogenous zone—genitals


Alfred Adler

Individual psychology

• Inferiority complex

Birth order shapes personality

Erik Erikson

Psychosocial theory of development—personality develops throughout  lifespan

Eight stages

Carl Jung

Analytical psychology

Collective unconscious

Extroversion and introversion

Karen Horney

Role of unconscious anxiety

Three styles of coping

• Moving towards people

• Moving against people

• Moving away from people


• A reaction both to the pessimistic determinism of psychoanalysis, with its emphasis on  psychological disturbance, and to the behaviorists’ view of humans passively reacting to  the environment, which has been criticized as making people out to be personality-less  robots

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of needs theory—human beings have certain needs in common  and they need to be met in a certain order

Studied people considered healthy, creative, and productive

Carl Rogers

Self-concept—our thoughts and feelings about ourselves

Ideal self vs. Real self

The Trait Perspective

Gordon Allport

Cardinal traits, central traits, and secondary traits

Raymond Cattell

Personality made up of same traits

The degree at which they express themselves makes people different

The Eysencks

Focused on temperament

Five Factor Model

Extraversion/introversion and neuroticism/stability


Sex includes several different physical properties that may differentiate the sexes in humans • Sex chromosomes

• Gonads—produce sex hormones and generate ova or sperm

• Gonadal hormone amounts—XX and XY chromosomes differ in hormone amounts • External anatomy

• Secondary sex characteristics

Gender is social and psychological aspects to being male, female, both, neither, or non-binary • Includes understanding the meaning of being in any of those categories In the early 20th century, researchers started using several methods to test gender  

• Word associations

• Inkblots  

• Statements of interests

• Introversion

• Self judgements of overall masculinity and femininity

o Feminine= liking babies, nursing and charades; masculine=disliking all those  things

Gender was a bipolar masculine-feminine continuum until the 1970's when statistical analyses  suggested that gender had multiple dimensions

Bem's Sex Role Theory

• 4 "gender schemes"—feminine, masculine, undifferentiated, androgynous • Given 20 attributes that were feminine, masculine, or neutral each (60 total—later  decreased to 30 total)

• Due to this research, gender identity was no longer considered bipolar helped enable  research on androgyny

• BSRI is a direct measure of self-reports and can also use indirect measures to examine  automatic and spontaneous aspects of gender identity

Gender Identity as Socially Constructed and Social Role Theory

• Children learn gender identity

o How to behave

o How/when to conform or not conform

o How to think about genders

o How to occupy a particular gender identity

• Social role theory states that "behavior differences between men and women can be  attributed to cultural standards and expectations"

o Affects their roles in the society in which they live

▪ Ex. Women are more domestic, women have lower status in occupations,  women and men have different occupational tasks

• Gender roles—roles that reflect individual's expectation for how a female or male should  think, feel, and behave

• Gender stereotypes—OVERLY GENERALIZED beliefs and expectations of what men  and women are like



Social psychology is the study of how individuals think about, influence, and relate to  themselves and others

• Focuses on

o Social cognition

▪ 3 goals are conserving mental effort, be accurate, and preserving a good  image of oneself

o Behavioral processes

o Emotional or evaluative processes

The self is hard to know, but research has focused on 3 parts  

• self-concept  

o Organized social cognitive information about oneself and is formed through a  variety of cognitive processes. It includes self-schemas

▪ Conserve mental effort  

1. Social world is complicated, and humans have limited cognitive  


• self-presentation

• self esteem

Research: Schemes and Expectations  

• Self-Fulfilling Experiment

o Describes how a statement may alter actions and therefore become true.  o Should interviewee "go with the flow" or "present a desired image" and  interviewer either received good or bad info on the interviewee

Five Sources of Self Concept

• Introspection

o Reflective thinking upon one's own thoughts and feelings and often inaccurate • Watching own behavior

o Daryl Bem Perception Theory

▪ we learn about ourselves by watching our own behavior

▪ If cues are ambiguous, we watch our behavior and decide thoughts and  feelings unless coerced  

• Influence of others

o Colley's Looking Glass Theory

▪ View ourselves as we believe other people do or as society does

1. "everyone thinks I'm a dumb jock so I must be"

o Festinger's Social Comparison Theory

▪ Downward social comparison—compare ourselves to people not as good  as us

▪ Upward social comparison—tend to compare ourselves to people we  consider as doing better than us

• Autobiographical memory

o We remember recent events, "firsts", and flashbulb memories

o Egocentric bias—emphasize own role

o Hindsight bias—emphasize own predictive power

o Research example: Distortions of Memory of HS grades

• Culture  

o Individualistic vs. Collectivistic culture

Monitoring Self-Esteem?

• Higgins' Self Discrepancy Theory

o Self-esteem results from match between actual and ideal selves

Self-awareness also affects behavior. It can be coped with by working hard to change self if it's  easy to change or escaping self-awareness.

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