History 112 Exam 2 Study Guide
= key person/concept
Chapter 21: Progressivism
1. What were the key goals of the Progressive Movement?
a. Improving social welfare
i. correcting the negative impacts of industrialization
ii. protecting human well being: helping the poor (settlement houses,
iii. improving women’s rights with the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote, pushed by those like Dr. Alice Paul
iv. Education reforms
v. Walter Rauschenbusch questioned the role of churches and institutional religion in the community and with helping the poor in “The Social
b. Reform economics
i. Correcting the stratification of wealth between business, government and the people
ii. Minimum wage laws, child labor laws, journalists exposing unfair
iii. Exposing and fixing government corruption
c. Increasing Economic Efficiency
i. Frederick Taylor & the Scientific Movement use of the scientific method to determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks
ii. 8 Hour work day
2. Who were some of the key Progressive advocates?
a. Frances Willard Women’s rights, education reform, prison reform, temperance b. Lillian Wald Creates Children’s Bureau of the Department of Labor; says women should not work more than 10 hours a day; concerned with public health
c. Senator Robert La Follete made an advisory board composed of professors from University of Wisconsin that were experts in economics and government in order to help reform government and cut down on corruption If you want to learn more check out kristen miller uga
d. Eugene Debs leader of the Socialist party, advocated for workers’ rights, and regulation of big business
e. Jane Addams founded the Hull House which was a place for poor immigrants to receive education, learn various skills, be nursed back to health if sick and for
children to be taken care of. Paved the way for other settlement houses to be formed. She believed that it was the duty of the educated to uplift those that were not.
f. W. E. B. Du Bois encouraged black people to receive college educations and thought that taking immediate action and creating agitation was the quickest way to invoke racial progress
3. Describe “the progressive” legislation and policies achieved during the Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson administrations.
a. Roosevelt: Sherman AntiTrust Act (to bust up monopolies), Conservationism establishes national parks and monuments, Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act
b. Taft: continued trust busting dismantled Standard Oil, though did undo some conservationist efforts
c. Wilson: the 19th Amendment
4. How did W. E. B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells work to improve race relations?
a. W. E. B. Du Bois believed that progress would only come about through activism and encouraged black people to go to college. Helped found the NAACP b. Booker T. Washington believed that progress should be slow, and that black people should build themselves up behind the line of segregation. He encouraged black people to get technical and trade jobs Established the Tuskegee Institute c. Ida B. Wells also helped found the NAACP, involved in antilynching activism, If you want to learn more check out What are the differences between needs, wants, and demands?
Chapter 22: World War I
1. What circumstances prompted the United States’ entry into World War I? a. Originally, most Americans had antiwar sentiments, but after the sinking of the Lusitania by German Uboats and the Zimmerman Telegraph, sent by Germany to Mexico, encouraging them to declare war on the US, it was evident that we would have to enter the war.
2. How did World War I shape Woodrow Wilson’s vision of the United States’ role in world affairs?
a. He claimed that entering the war was to “make the world safe for democracy” b. 14 Points Progressive plan for how the world should continue from WWII, suggesting that the US be an international police of sorts If you want to learn more check out cresterol
3. Why did some American citizens and political leaders oppose Wilson’s vision? a. Many were against it. Those such as LaFollette said “if we cooperate with those governments, we endorse their methods”
b. Others say that there are clear threats at home that are more important American Protective League, J. Edgar Hoover an association that encouraged people to send in reports about seemingly seditious activitiesWe also discuss several other topics like fsu advertising
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c. Some against having the US involved in other countries affairs as it would be if it was in the League of Nations
4. How did World War I impact life on the home front?
a. Selective Service Act created the draft
b. George Creel and the Committee on Public Information designed to influence the American public to support the US entering into WWI
c. Food rations, patriotism
d. Leads to desire for women’s suffrage and red scare
Chapter 23: The 1920s
1. What social, political and economic factors gave rise to the “roaring” 1920s? a. Social
i. Automobile leads to dating culture and consumer culture We also discuss several other topics like belamcanda 15
ii. women start to wear more comfortable clothing and start to desire more control over their own bodies Margaret Sanger encourages use of birth
iii. Hollywood, sports worship
iv. Harlem Renaissance Jazz, art, literature caused in part by the Red
Summer and Great Migration after large numbers of black people moved to larger urban areas like Chicago
i. A fairly conservative age of politics Harding elected in 1920 isolationist, passed prohibition, restricted immigration
ii. Followed by Coolidge who championed limited government, lowered taxes and reduced federal spending
i. American GDP makes a huge jump in small amount of time due to new found consumerism
ii. New technology/inventions such as vacuum, refrigerator, radio and
iii. Installment plans expanded personal debt and allowed everyone to have these new products
2. How did President Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover envision the function of the federal government?
a. Harding Government should be like a business
b. Coolidge Government should be limited
c. Hoover Government should take a lassiezfaire approach to the Depression the banks would correct themselves
3. What factors contributed to American’s growing consumption patterns during the “Roaring Twenties”?
a. The automobile gave Americans the opportunity to drive to stores father away and more often to buy things
b. There is a spike in new inventions and technology that make life in the home easier
4. The 1920s was dubbed “The Roaring Twenties,” the “Dollar Decade,” and “The Jazz Age” in America. The decade was also called the “Age of Normalcy.” Explain why this decade was viewed with such excitement and optimism by some Americans and why some wanted a return to a “normal” society?
a. A lot of social and economic changes came about during this age, however after WWI, many just wanted their lives to return to normal which is reflected in the election of Harding to the presidency in 1920.
Chapter 24: The Great Depression and The New Deal
1. What were some of the key causes of the Great Depression?
a. Structural weakness of the economy
b. Weakened agricultural sector draught conditions
c. Overproduction/under consumption
d. Imbalance in personal wealth debt and credit
e. Stock market crash
2. How did the administrations of President Hoover and President Roosevelt respond to the depression crisis?
i. championed a voluntary plan of recovery
ii. resisted government involvement
iii. thought the banks would restore on their own
i. Believed that through action, things would get better
ii. Wanted to implement direct relief to the people, safeguards to protect the banks through policy, and recovery for American farms and businesses
iii. The New Deal
3. What were the major policy achievements of FDR’s New Deal?
a. Social Security Administration provides security to the elderly and retired workers
b. Works Progress Administration employed people by funding the building of roads, bridges, schools and hospitals
4. What types of reforms were proposed in FDR’s first 100 days to address banking, agriculture, and unemployment?
a. Banking and Finance
i. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ensures deposits up to $2500
ii. Securities Exchange Commission
b. Relief and Conservation
i. Federal Emergency Relief Corporation loans to state governments to employ people
c. Agriculture/Rural Initiatives
i. Agriculture Adjustment Act provides subsidies to reduce production and destroy surplus crops
d. Industrial Recovery
i. National Recovery Administration salary and condition negotiations
5. Why were New Deal policies criticized?
a. Some thought that the policies were an overreach of government
b. Others, such as Minnie Harden, were of the mind that it was creating a culture of dependency
c. Others, such as Upton Sinclair, believed that not enough was being done d. Huey Long believed that the wealthy should be heavily taxed, and that money should be redistributed to the less wealthy
Chapter 25: World War II
1. How did World War II impact life on the home front?
a. The Federal Budget expands 10fold
b. 16 million American men serve in the war 2/3 of which are drafted
c. This leaves women to fill the jobs that the men leave behind
i. Women in workforce increases by 50% and wages for women almost double
ii. Many women also decide that they want to keep working even after their husbands return
d. Japanese Internment after Pearl Harbor racial tensions
2. How did World War II bring an end to the Great Depression?
a. Unemployment declined due to men being drafted and women filling their jobs the war also created more jobs
b. The war required an increase in manufacturing which meant we no longer had the surplus that was harming the economy