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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Weather and Climate Study Guide - EXAM #2 - Study

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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Weather and Climate Study Guide - EXAM #2 - Study

School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Geography
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Marius Paulikas
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Weather and Climate Study Guide - EXAM #2
Description: Weather and Climate Study Guide for Exam #2. The exam is on Wednesday March 28, 2018.
Uploaded: 03/23/2018
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background image Anthony Vellucci Weather and Climate Unit 2 Exam (Topic 6 – Topic 9) Topic 6 – Satellite, Radar Imagery, and Other Observations Difference Between Direct and Indirect Observations Direct Methods – instruments that have to be on sight and directly exposed to the  environmental conditions o Thermometer, Barometer, Wind Vane Indirect Methods – instruments that  DO NOT have to be on sight or in contact to take  measurements – remote sensors o Weather Satellite, Weather Radar Difference Between Active vs Passive Sensor Active Sensors – instruments that will be actively emitting radiation beams of longwave  radiation in order to capture the atmosphere Passive Sensors – instruments that are weather satellites (weather satellites will not emit  the radiation themselves); reflective light; also exposed to inferred wave radiation What Do Radar Reflectivity and Doppler Velocity Images Indicate Radar Reflectivity – how much energy is being returned; warmer colors = more  energy/higher precipitation intensity; cooler colors = less energy/lower precipitation 
intensity – REFLECTIVE
Doppler Radar – sensing in bound air that tells us a greater or lower pitch frequency  (higher pitch = louder/closer, lower pitch = softer/further away); green = inbound; red =  outbound – VELOCITY How Are Tornadoes Detected? Hook Shaped Echo = where tornado can occur GEO vs LEO Satellites GEO Satellites  o GEO = Geostationary o In sync with the Earth’s rotation o Lower and mid latitude  LEO Satellites  Hook 
Echo
background image o LEO = Low Earth Orbit o Orbit from pole to pole o Covers high latitudes Radiometers – instruments on the satellites that actually capture the images What Do Visible, Infrared, and Water Vapor Satellite Imagery Sense? Visible o Satellite imagery based on reflective light patterns o Darker regions (lower albedo) o Bright regions (higher albedo) Albedo = reflective  o Resolution – very good o Will not be visible to us 24 hours Only can see when day light hours  Infrared o Detects radiation emissions at 10­12 micrometer wavelengths o Colder clouds appear brighter objects; longer wave lengths o Darker objects are warmer o Resolution – not as great Water Vapor o Imagery based on water vapor content o Detects emissions at 6.5 micrometers o Darker areas correspond to less water vapor present; dry area o Whiter/Brighter areas correspond to more water vapor present; more moisture Topic 7 – Vertical Motions, Atmospheric Stability Vocab Lapse Rate ­ the change in decreasing temperature relative to change in altitude Adiabatic Cooling ­  cooling which occurs due to a DECREASE in atmospheric pressure Adiabatic Heating ­  warming which occurs due to an INCREASE in atmospheric  pressure How is Surface­Based Air Lifted into the Atmosphere? 4 ways o Orographic Lifting – air forced up due to the presentence of mountains o Convection – when air wants to rise on its own
background image o Frontal Lifting – very large bodies of air with different density’s clashing in an  area stretching up to hundreds of miles; large geographic scale o Convergence – cooler air clashing with warmer less dense air; less dense air rises; small geographic scale LCL Tables What is the DALR Lapse Rate? o DALR = Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate Decreases by 10 degrees Celsius per km Below LCL  10 Above LCL  6 EXAMPLE 4 km ­5 o  C 3 km 1 o  C 2 km (LCL) 7 o  C 1 km 17 o  C 0 km 27 o  C Clouds Along Mountains Windward Side – side of the mountain where the air is flowing towards the mountain and rising alongside the mountain Leeward Side – side of the mountain where air is flowing down and away from the  mountain o Calculate Leeward Side by:  ADD 10 Example Windward Side Leeward Side 4 km ­8 ­ ­ ­ 3 km ­2 ­8 + 10 = 2 2 km (LCL) 4 12 1 km 14 22 0 km 24 32 * Leeward Side should be larger (warmer) than Windward Side  MALR = 6 o  C DALR = 10 o  C

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School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Geography
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Marius Paulikas
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: Weather and Climate Study Guide - EXAM #2
Description: Weather and Climate Study Guide for Exam #2. The exam is on Wednesday March 28, 2018.
Uploaded: 03/23/2018
8 Pages 97 Views 77 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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