STUDY GUIDE FOR TEST 3
● Chapter 11 water
● Colorado river no longer reaches the sea due to dam usage and lack of water ● Water quality
○ Dilution is solution to pollution
○ Lead poison affects the brain with neurotoxins that are very harmful ● Pollution
○ Point source - form a specific location such as pipe or factories
○ Nonpoint source - from a variety of course across a landscape
○ CAFO = confined animal feeding operations these can cause huge methane issues. If you want to learn more check out The endocrine system functions as the collection of what?
● Treatment plant
○ WWTP = human waste primary treatment - removes floating particles by mechanical processes
○ Secondary treatment - biological
■ Decompose suspended or organic material : reduces BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) measures amount of organic material (sewage sludge) ○ Tertiary treatment - Biological / chemical, advanced wastewater treatment methods that are sometimes employed after primary and secondary treatments - reduce phosphorus and nitrogen gas
○ Enrichment - fertilization of a body of water by high levels of nitrogen and phosphors Increases in biological oxygen demand
○ Amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms to decrease biological waste - as BOD increase dissolved oxygen decreases.
● On site wastewater treatment
○ Typical of households that use septic tanks (25% of houses in the US ) ○ Septic system - underground tank that uses leach field to disperse dirty water ○ Grey water - water from sources other than toilet
○ Chlorine - by products are linked to numerous cancers, miscarriages and birth defects
○ Ozonation - used by GUC , Prevents tooth decay - linked to cancer, kidney disease Don't forget about the age old question of What are the four criteria for identifying domesticated animals?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the rejection of realism?
● Water saving techniques
○ Desalination - converting seawater to freshwater
○ Reverse osmosis - filtering out salts -expensive (Cost and Energy) ○ Reuse grey water for other practical uses (sink water becomes toilet water) ○ Wastewater is treated and reused for irrigation
● Chapter 12
● Nitrogen is the most abundant element and is necessary for life We also discuss several other topics like What is the importance of tourism?
○ Microorganisms transform nitrogen gas to usable forms
○ We can only use natural nitrogen for positive life
○ The human actions that make natural water worse with bad nutrients ○ Phytoplankton - use algae to grow and clean fresh water If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between mechanisms and machinations?
● Phosphorus is abundant in crust of the earth but is absent from the atmosphere ○ Humans impact with mines to gather phosphorous disrupts ecosystems ● Sulfur cycle
○ Weathering and volcanic activity releases unusable forms of gas ○ Flux of sulfur into atmosphere high but residence time is low
○ Human impact - mining fossil fuels and burning them has doubled amount of sulfur released which causes acid rain
● SOIL DOES NOT HOLD NEGATIVELY CHARGED IONS
● Dust bowl
○ Great plains has low precipitation and is subject to drought
■ 1930-1937 severe drought
■ No natural vegetation roots to hold soil in place
● Preventing soil erosion
○ Not tilling soil - cover crops - contour farming
○ Unintended side effect of one or more parties
● Ecosystem services
○ Provisioning services
○ Regulation services
○ Cultural services
○ Sulporties services
○ Ethics differ - intrinsic value - people, organisms, or objects are valued ○ Industrial value - things are valued as a mean to something else ○ Western worldview - human superiority and dominance over nature ○ Deep ecology worldwide view - all species have equal value
○ Anthropocentric ethics = human centred
○ Biocentric ethics = all things important Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the factors influencing the rate of adoption?
○ Ecocentric ethics= communities and ecosystems and their intermantes are important
○ Ecofeminism - women suffer more than men