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UMass - KIN 100 - Class Notes - Week 7

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UMass - KIN 100 - Class Notes - Week 7

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background image 3/5/18 (week 7) Exercise Physiology: Part II  Maximal Oxygen Consumption o   ¿ resting, submax HR x  ↑ resting, exercise SV) x ( ↑ O 2  extraction from blood) = o ↑max cardiac output , ↑blood volume ,↓ blood viscosity Skeletal Adaptation o Not all adaptation is positive Stress fractures, space, immobilization o Summary= Lack of PA result in  ↓ BMD/increases PA  ↑ BMD Types of Bone Stress o Ground Reaction Force o Weight bearing exercises Spinal loading o Muscular contraction Compression, bending, internal forces Muscular System Adaptations o Increased muscular strength o Increases in ATP, PCr, glycogen in FT fibers o Neural changes Enhances synchronous recruitment Reduces inhibition o Increased muscular power & endurance o Fiber number & type Hypertrophy vs. hyperplasia Fiber type is determined by motor neuron—not likely that type changes, 
but can adapt in characteristics
Muscular Strength o Cross sectional area o Fiber type distribution o Neural factors o Hormones (testosterone) o MS may increase 20%­100% over several months o Individualization Hypertrophy o 6—8 weeks o Individualization
background image Fast responders vs. slow responders o Protein synthesis>protein degradation Other Areas of Study in Exercise Physiology o Factors controlling substrate metabolism o Muscle control of glucose uptake o Skeletal muscle physiology o Bone metabolism o Energy balance and weight control o Assessment of energy expenditure & PA o Environmental exercise
background image 3/7/18  Physiological Capacity Across the Lifespan Pediatric Sports Medicine o A child’s body doesn’t function the same as an adults’ body. o When dealing with children, there are a few special considerations that must be  realized: 1) Movement economy   2) Thermoregulation Movement Economy and Children o Children are less economical during movement. o This means that a given movement requires a greater proportion of energy in a  child than in an adult.  o We can measure the economy of movement using the amount of oxygen that is  consumed during a task. o The greater the oxygen consumption, the less economical the individual. Example: If we ask children to walk uphill, as the grade of the hill 
(incline) increases, more oxygen will be consumed
o Why are children less economical? More co­contraction (contract the agonist and antagonist at the same time, 
likely for stability).
During gait (walking and running) children have a shorter stride length 
and a higher stride frequency, requiring more energy.
Strike frequency and stride length Lower storage of elastic energy in the muscles and tendons. Thermoregulation o Thermostasis: the ability to maintain a particular body temperature. o Thermostasis is more difficult for children than for adults. o Reasons thermostasis is more difficult for children: Children have a larger surface area per unit body mass than adults. This means children gain more heat in a bot environment and lose 
more heat in a cold environment than adults.
Children sweat less than adults. Children aren’t able to adapt to an environment as well as adults Growth and Development VO 2  Max vs. Peak

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School: University of Massachusetts
Department: Kinesiology
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Kamen
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: kin 100, Kinesiology, kinesiology notes, Lecture Notes, and notes
Name: KIN 100, week 7 notes
Description: Notes for week 7 of KIN 100
Uploaded: 03/24/2018
11 Pages 20 Views 16 Unlocks
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