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UT / Advertising / ADV 319 / What is the definition of self-efficacy?

What is the definition of self-efficacy?

What is the definition of self-efficacy?


School: University of Texas at Austin
Department: Advertising
Course: Psychology of Advertising
Professor: Close-schienbaum
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: ADV Exam 2 Review
Description: study guide for exam 2
Uploaded: 03/25/2018
12 Pages 221 Views 17 Unlocks


What is the definition of self-efficacy?


● 12 pages of material 

● All topics on Dr. Kahlor’s study guide are included with definitions, explanations, etc. 

● Material from lectures and the textbook 


Video re: self-concept development

● Young children describe themselves in terms of physical characteristics, possessions, and behaviors, and then moving into middle childhood, begin to describe themselves in less concrete terms, in terms of group membership

● During middle childhood, kids also describe themselves in more psychological dimensions

Self-concept, structure/parts; East-West conceptualizations of the self; Collective self ● Self concept​: how you know and understand yourself

What is social comparison?

○ Schema of the self

● Self concept develops as we develop (children video)

● Western societies: emphasis on individual identity

● Eastern societies: emphasis on group identity → also known as the collective self ● Self concept includes: self image, self esteem, and self efficacy

Self Image, roles We also discuss several other topics like What are quantitative traits?

● Self image:​ how you perceive yourself; how you think others perceive you ○ Roles, personality, physical characteristics, skills/abilities, hobbies, occupation ○ Impacted by personal and social norms

Self-esteem; Dove example from lecture on girl’s self-esteem

What is symbolic interactionism?

● Self esteem​: how you feel about yourself - emotionally

○ High self esteem: positive evaluation

○ Low self esteem: negative evaluation

○ Dove ad example: girls wish they could change things about themselves ○ Global self esteem: feelings about who we are - this is constant

○ Situational self esteem changes due to circumstances, roles, events: feelings about what we do

Self efficacy, influences on

● Self efficacy: ​someone’s judgement about being able to do a particular activity ○ “I can”or “I can’t”

○ Self efficacy levels can vary across circumstances, abilities, etc.

■ It is specific to the task at hand If you want to learn more check out What is stratigraphy?

○ 4 main sources of influence:

■ Mastery: success builds efficacy, failure undermines it

■ Vicarious experience: greater assumed similarity = more persuasive models’ successes and failures

■ Social persuasion: encouragement from others = greater effort

■ Stress: positive mood = greater self efficacy

Nike often appeals to what aspect of the self?

● Example: Nike tries to appeal to your self efficacy - your ability to do something Social comparison

● Social comparison​: individual tries to evaluate their appearance by comparing it to the people depicted in artificial images/ads

Ideal and actual/real self

● Ideal self:​ how we would like to be

● Actual self​: our realistic appraisal of who we are, our qualities We also discuss several other topics like Who are the married couple who studied sex and wanted to know what happens while you’re having sex?
If you want to learn more check out What are the hamarabe law codes?

● Products can help us reach our ideal self, and be consistent with our actual self ○ Ads can encourage and facilitate social comparison

■ Social comparison​ can highlight discrepancies between ideal and actual self

Extended self, levels

● We integrate external entities into our self concept at four levels:

○ Individual: possessions

○ Family: residence

○ Community: town, neighborhood

○ Group: social groups, subcultures

Embodied cognition, enclothed cognition

● Embodied cognition​: ”States of the body modify states of the mind” ○ Our behaviors and observations of what we do and buy, shape our thoughts rather than vice versa We also discuss several other topics like When the earth revolves, it takes about how long to complete one solar day?

● Enclothed cognition​: the symbolic meaning of clothing changes how people behave Self consciousness, monitoring

● Self consciousness​: awareness of self

● Self monitoring​: you are attuned to how you present yourself in social environments ○ High self monitors: study others, are self-conscious, focus on appearance, can adapt to differing social situations

○ Low self monitors: oblivious to how others see them, they march to their own drumbeat

Multiple selves, roles, examples

● We all have several “selves” and “roles”

○ We have achieved role identities​: freely chosen

○ And we have ascribed role identities​: gender, race, etc.

● Marketers try to sell us products that are needed to facilitate our role identities Multi-tasking ads vs. what science says

● Thinking about the ideal self and the actual self in terms of multitasking: ○ We think we can successfully multitask (ideal self)

○ BUT we are actually very bad at multitasking (actual self)

Identity marketing, “science is a girl thing”

● Ads can reference identities, which improve purchase likelihoods If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of producer surplus?

○ However, messages that try to define an identity often backfire and reduce purchase likelihood

○ Why? “Science is a girl thing” example: tried to define the identity that women like girly and feminine things such as makeup, high heels, dresses, etc.

■ These are “girl things”

Self image Congruence

● Self-image congruence models​ suggest that people choose products when their attributes match some aspect of the self

○ Choosing an aesthetically pleasing product = feeling better about ourselves Symbolic interactionism

● Symbolic interactionism:​ this concept stresses that relationships with other people play a large part to form the self

○ Therefore we exist in a symbolic environment → we assign meaning to any situation/object when we interpret symbols

○ In a society, individuals agree on shared meanings (a red stop light means stop) Body image

● Body image:​ someone’s subjective evaluation of his or her physical self ○ Doesn’t always correspond to others’ evaluations of ourselves

● Marketers can exploit this concept we have of ourselves, and create an ideal self that we think we should be; products are then marketed to us, claiming to close the gap between our actual self and the ideal self we want

Beauty ideals internationally, examples for men from video

● Men’s beauty standards vary across the world

Gender identity, roles, socialization

● Children learn from role models and modeled behaviors

● Toys and clothes are often gender-specific for kids

Sex-typed products, gender bending

● Sex-typed products:​ these products reflect stereotypical masculine or feminine attributes

○ Consumers associate the product with one gender or the other

● Gender-bending products​: traditionally sex-typed items adapted to the opposite gender

○ Examples: selling pink guns for women, tweezers for men, Febreze for men


Freud’s Structural Model, Ego, id, superego, Cat in the Hat as it relates to Freud ● Freud’s structural model​ of personality consists of the Id, Ego, and Superego (three different parts of the mind)

○ These concepts make up personality: managing balance between the id and superego

○ These are functions of the mind

● Id​: wants whatever feels good at the time; no consideration for reality ○ All unconscious

○ Cat and the hat analogy: the Id is the cat in the hat

● Superego​: moral part of the mind; develops due to moral and ethical restraints of our caregivers and society

○ The superego is the fish

● Ego​: responsible for meeting the needs of the id and superego; finding a balance between the two

○ Conscious

○ The ego is the kids

Reality principle, Lynx ad from class

● Reality principle​: when the ego gratifies the id, it’s responsive to the superego, but still allows for pleasure

○ Develops in childhood; we mirror our caregivers’ actions

● Lynx ad example: the men are showing sexual urges/behaviors (part of id) that they normally wouldn’t

60s Freud video

● PPT personality and lifestyles slide 20

Iceberg graphic

● PPT personality and lifestyles slide 15

Freud and sexuality, complexes, slips

● We constantly deal with our sex drive, Eros

● Our first love is our mom or dad

○ Boys have the oedipus complex: in love with his mom

○ Girls have electra complex: in love with her dad

● But these loves aren’t possible, so this is our first conflict (unconsciously) ○ Girls develop penis envy

○ Boys develop fear of castration

● Freudian slips​: instances when the sex drive slips out in speech

Motivational research

● Marketing research can build on Freudian ideas

○ Tries to understand deeper meanings behind product preferences, choices, etc. ○ Focus is on the unconscious

Clotaire Rapaille video clip

● PPT personality and lifestyles slide 24

● We recognize a set number of common archetypes as humans

Archetypes, healthy relationships to shadows, Jung, video

● Carl Jung established the concept of the collective unconscious: this is the origin of shared understanding of archetypes

● Archetypes​: universally recognized themes or behavior patterns

Trait theory, problems

● Measuring traits

Idiocentric, allocentric

● Idiocentric​: focus on yourself

● Allocentric​: focus on others

Brand personality, 5 general categories, Examples from class (Blue Bell, etc.) ● Brand personality​: set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person ○ We take characteristics of personality and apply them to brands; we see brands as people, we have relationships with them

● 5 general categories: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, ruggedness ● Think about the brand personality of North Face, Blue bell, UT, etc.


● Brand equity​: strong, favorable, and unique associations for a brand in memory ○ This is built over time, and brands work hard to build this with consumers ○ Creates brand loyalty

Lifestyles, marketing, group identities

● Lifestyles​: pattern on consumption reflecting how one spends time and money in addition to meeting our basic needs

● People sort themselves into lifestyle groups on the basis of: what they like to do, how they spend leisure time, and how they spend disposable income

Brand storytelling

● Giving a product a rich background to involve customers in its history or experience Psychographics

● Marketers use data on psychological, sociological, and anthropological factors that determine our values. This data helps to:

○ Determine market segments

○ Determine reasons for choosing products

○ Fine tine offerings

Big 5 Traits

● Openness to experience

● Conscientiousness

● Extroversion

● Agreeableness

● Neuroticism


● Activities, interests, and opinions

● Used to group consumers

VALS2 – know the 8 categories

● VALS: ​values and lifestyles

● Categories of VALS2:

○ Innovators, thinkers, achievers, strivers, makers, experiencers, believers, strugglers


● Value​: internal reference for what is good, beneficial, important, useful, beautiful, desirable, constructive, etc.

○ What we align ourselves with

○ Some condition is preferable to its opposite

● Products and services can help attain value-related goals

Core values

● The fundamental beliefs/values of a person or organization

Apple video on Values

● Steve jobs says that Apple’s core value is “believing that people with passion can change the world for the better”


Attitude defined

● Attitude​: lasting evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues ○ Inclination to respond to something either favorable or unfavorable ABC models

● Affective​: feelings or emotions that something evokes

● Behavioral​: disposition to act in certain ways toward something

○ Tendency to act, not actual acting

● Cognitive​: thoughts, beliefs, and ideas about something


● Affect: ​raw reactions; decisions we make driven by emotions

Attitude Object

● Attitude object​: anything you have an attitude about

Attitude commitment

● Lowest level: compliance

○ Going along to get along

○ The attitude is formed to gain a reward or avoid a punishment

● Identification: attitudes formed to conform to another person or group ○ Becoming part of an identity you’re trying to hold on to

● Highest level: internalization

○ Hardest to change

○ Attitude strongly linked to consumer’s value system

Hierarchy models (as discussed in class)

● High involvement: Begins with thinking (cognitive stage) → then we feel (affective stage) → then we take action or not (behavior stage)

● Low involvement: think → do → feel

● Experiential: feel → do → think

○ Emotional contagion

The four theories of attitudes (functionalist, cognitive dissonance, self-perception, balance) ● Functionalist theory​: attitudes change when they no longer serve their function

● Cognitive dissonance theory: ​we want to solve a dissonance/unbalance in our mind; inconsistency is uncomfortable

● Self perception theory​: we infer attitudes from our behavior; we observe our behavior, then draw reasonable inferences; thought of by Bem

● Balance theory​: how people develop their relationships with people and with things in their environment

Persuasion and compliance

● Persuasion​: attempt to change attitudes and subsequently behavior Bem and self-perception (mentioned above)

Heider and balance

● Heider developed the balance theory

● Triad attitude structures

○ Person and his perceptions

○ An attitude objects

○ Some other person/object

Fishbein’s models, including reasoned action, social pressure example video re: smoking ● Multi-attribute attitude models: Fishbein

○ Attributes of the attitude object

○ Beliefs about the attitude object

○ Importance weights, evaluation

● Fishbein model:

○ Capitalize on relative advantage

○ Strengthen perceived product/attribute linkages

○ Add a new attribute

○ Influence competitors’ ratings


● Advertisers use social norms in marketing


● Behavior​: actions someone takes toward the object or in some cases at least their intentions to take action about it

Celebrity endorsements

● Celebrity endorsements are often used in ads to create a positive connection between the product/service and the consumer

ELM and route to persuasion (book and lecture)

● Elaboration likelihood model:​ when unmotivated or overtaxed, we follow the peripheral route

○ Less focused on careful evaluation

○ Focus on surface characteristics

○ Temporary change results

● ELM: when motivated and able to pay attention, our information processing follows the central route in decision-making

○ We think carefully

○ Integrate info into schemas

○ Can lead to permanent change - but have to dig really dip

Communication models

● Older, linear models involved much less feedback than newer, interactive models ○ Due to technology, social media

Two factor theory

● Two factor theory​: fine line between familiarity and boredom

○ Proposes that 2 separate psychological processes operate when we repeatedly show an ad to a viewer

Source, source characteristics, risk, source examples from lecture; Message factors, content ● What to consider in message development

○ Who is the source?

■ Good source: credibility, attractiveness

○ How should message be constructed?

○ What media will transmit the message?

○ What target market characteristics will influence the ad’s acceptance? ● Decisions to make about the message

○ Pictures or words?

○ How often should it be repeated?

● Decisions to make about message content

○ Draw explicit conclusion?

○ Show both sides of an argument?

○ Explicitly compare product to competitors?

● Decisions to make about the message

○ Should it arouse emotions?

○ Concrete or based in imagery?

Arguments, 2-sided messages (examples and why works, nike/adidas)

● Ads that explicitly compared its product to competitors work as long as isn’t not too nasty

○ Competition needs to be well known already

Emotional appeals and examples

● Fear appeals: shouldn’t be TOO scary

○ If there is a fear appeal, it needs to offer a means to alleviate the threat through action → this is what makes it effective

Reality engineering

● Reality engineering​: when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use them as promotional vehicles

Guerilla marketing

● Guerilla marketing​: promotional strategies that use unconventional means and venues to encourage word of mouth about products

Product placement, advergaming

● Product placement: ​insertion of real products in fictional media

● Advergaming: ​online games merge with interactive advertisements that let companies target specific types of consumers

Sex, humor

● Sex appeals ​are common in US ads

○ Draws attention to ad

○ But can be counterproductive

● Humor appeals: funny ads get attention

○ Mixed reviews: can be productive or counterproductive

Decision Making

Stages in decision-making

● Problem recognition

● Information search

● Evaluation of alternatives

● Product choice

● Post purchase evaluation

Emotion, Antonio Demasio video

● We can’t make decisions without emotions - emotions are very important in decision making

● According to Antonio Demasio:

○ Impaired emotional capacity leads to bad decisions

○ Emotions help call on prior decision-making experience and how we felt then ■ These feelings are informative

○ Emotions serve as impetus for action

Consumer hyperchoice

● Consumer hyperchoice​ forces us to make repeated decisions that may drain psychological energy while decreasing our abilities to make smart choices Rationality

● 2 rationality arguments

● 1: rational decision making is preferable/ideal

○ Good decisions require careful processing of alternatives

○ All other decision making is bad

● 2: we need to make some decisions informally, using heuristics and shortcuts to act quickly

○ In consumer hyperchoice, we can’t weigh all options rationally because there are too many

○ Not all decisions require careful deliberation

Directed v. incidental learning

● Directed learning: ​existing product knowledge obtained from previous information search ot xperience of alternatives

○ Information is stored, you can use it going forward

● Incidental learning​: mere exposure over time to conditioned stimuli and observations of others

Information search and product knowledge

● Information search​: process by which consumers survey the environment for appropriate data to make a reasonable decision

● Product knowledge: consumers who have moderate knowledge about a product are the ones who tend to search most about it

○ There’s an inverted-U relationship between product knowledge and information search effort

Sunk cost, loss aversion

● Sunk cost fallacy​: type of decision making bias

○ If a consumer paid for something, they are more reluctant to waste it ● Loss aversion​: tendency when people hate losing things more than they like getting things

Habit and loyalty

● Habitual decision making: routine decisions

○ Snap judgements; easily accessible

○ Prone to biases - we rely on shortcuts

■ Problematic when the biases lead to error or harm

■ When we use shortcuts, we aren’t thinking carefully

○ Have to think hard about them to unlearn them

○ Matters in advertising: need to be aware of what conclusions are possible for consumers to reach with the information marketers give

Biases, Kahneman video; System 1 & 2 thinking

● Daniel kahneman offers 2 options for overcoming biases: system 1 and system 2 (similar to central and peripheral routes from ELM)

○ System 1: doesn’t use statistics very well; primarily in charge

○ System 2: use when there’s high stakes

● We have control over becoming self aware, when to use which system Purchase momentum

● Purchase momentum​: when our initial impulse purchases actually increase the likelihood that we will buy even more - instead of less as we satisfy our needs Prospect theory

● Prospect theory​: how the value of a decision depends on gains or losses Neuromarketing

● Neuromarketing​: use of brain observation for marketing purposes; how does a brain react to an ad?

○ Examines changes in brain activity in presence of advertising brands, advertising communications, or other persuasive stimuli

● Most common approaches: fMRI, EEG

○ fMRI: pinpoints certain brain activity; learn what triggers certain brain activity → know what about ads activates the brain and interests people

○ EEG: measures how much of the brain is activated; measures: attention, memory, emotion → when does the ad engage these, and disengage these? SEO

● Search engine optimization​ (SEO): procedures companies use to design the content of websites and posts to maximize the likelihood that their content will show up when someone searches for a relevant term

Product categorization levels (related to schemas)

● Superordinate level (dessert)

● Basic level (fattening dessert or non fattening)

● Subordinate level (ice cream, pie, and cake for fattening; fruit, yogurt, low-fat ice cream for non fattening)

Compensatory rules

● Compensatory rules​: allow a product to make up for its shortcomings one one dimension by excelling on another

○ Simple additive rule: leads to option with largest number of positive attributes ○ Weighted additive rule: allows consumer to take into account the relative importance of the attributes by weighting each one

Organizational decision-making

● Organizations have to make collective decisions, not just individuals ○ Team decision

● Organizational buyers purchase goods and services on behalf of companies for use in the process of manufacturing, distribution, or resale

● Business to business marketers specialize in working with and meeting needs of the above

Roles in collective decision-making within organizations

● Initiator: identifies need (professor needs new computer)

● Gatekeeper: searches, discloses (like a dept. administrator who checks records) ● Influencer: has input (dept. chair)

● Buyer: makes purchase (college IT people work with manufacturer like Apple) ● User: uses product (professor uses new computer)

Organizational decisions - relationships are important

● High accountability

● Many decision-makers of varied responsibilities

● Established relationships with distributors, sales representatives

● Repeat purchases, bulk

Family structure, identity, decision making

● There might only be one person “in charge”, but both parents are usually involved in high-involvement decisions, big purchases

How are modern fams changing (including fam size), videos

● Changes in family structure:

○ Multiple generations, then nuclear, now mixed

○ More open communication about interracial, same sex, and adoptive families ● Changes in concept of household - any occupied housing unit

● Example from Modern Family: gay couple adopted child of different race; interracial couples; stepfamilies, blended families

● Matters in marketing: there are products specifically made for families

● Family size

○ Depends on: education level, availability of birth control, community norms, religion

○ Women want smaller families, but the above factors impact actual outcome ○ Voluntarily not having children is becoming more popular

Sandwich gen, boomerang kids

● Sandwich generation​: adults who care for their parents as well as their own kids ● Boomerang kids: ​adult children who return to live with their parents ○ Spend less on household items and more on entertainment

Fam life cycle (with cigna stages)

● Family life cycle (FLC)​: combines trends in income and family composition with change in demands placed on income

○ Cigna stages: independence, coupling/marriage, parenting, launching adult children, retirement/senior years

● Life cycle stage, presence of children, if woman works: all determine how couples spend money

Function of family

● There are 4 basic functions provided by the family

○ Economic well being: providing financial support to dependents

○ Emotional support: love, affection, intimacy

○ Suitable family lifestyles: time, priority and relation to consumption ○ Family member socialization: values, norms, behavior, culture, religion Types of household decisions

● Consensual purchase decisions: members agree on the desired purchase, and only disagree in terms of how they will make it happen

● Accommodative purchase decision: members have different preferences or priorities and can’t agree on a purchase that satisfies everyone’s needs

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