Lecture Question Sheet #1 Aid
- The enzyme that breaks down fat in the small intestine is lipase
- Bile salts are made in the liver, they emulsify fatty acids, they are stored in the gallbladder, they are a steroid composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, and inorganic salts.
- Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase are produced by the pancreas. Trypsin breaks down proteins into smaller peptides, helping them to be absorbed into the blood. Chymotrypsin degrades proteins into smaller molecules in the intestinal tract. Elastase is another enzyme that breaks down proteins. If you want to learn more check out Why do monkeys with parietal lesions find it difficult to finish landmark tasks?
- Review lecture 1 to see the process on how proteins and carbohydrates are digested and absorbed by the body and how monosaccharides and amino acids are released into the blood stream.
- The brain, liver, and red blood cells are glucose independent. Muscle and adipose tissue are insulin dependent. Insulin dependent molecules require insulin to bind to the cells receptors on its surface in order to increase the number of glucose transporters on the cell surfaces and thereby increase glucose uptake.
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- Hexokinase is found in the brain, and glucokinase is found in the liver. When glucose levels are lows - hexokinase is active, but glucokinase isn’t active until glucose levels are higher. This is to give the brain a higher level of glucose intake under starvation conditions in order to function.
- The steps for how glucose is modified into glycogen is in the lecture 2 notes.
- Glycolysis splits glucose molecules into two pyruvate molecules, it splits a 6 carbon molecules into 2 3 carbon molecules. There is a net production of 2 ATP molecules. Slide 6 in Lecture #3 gives a simple layout of the process.
- 2 pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP molecules, and 2 NADH molecules are produced from the breaking down of one glucose molecule. If you want to learn more check out What are the 2 types of memory?
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- NAD+ accepts electrons and act as an electron carrier. It helps to supply electrons in the electron transport chain to produce energy by redox reactions.
- Negative delta Gs are usually irreversible, positive ones are usually reversible.
- ΔG° is different from ΔG in that it is Gibbs free energy under standard conditions.
- It is difficult to know ΔG for biochemical reaction, because there is a lot happening in the cells that you’d have to account for in order to find it, and everything changes quickly.
- Pyruvate needs to be converted into acetyl CoA before the products of glycolysis are fed into the TCA cycle.
- The coenzyme A is also required along with pyruvate dehydrogenase to convert pyruvate into acetyl CoA.
Lecture Question Sheet #2 Aid
- Reduced coenzymes donate electrons in the TCA which occurs in the mitochondria.
- There are four different complexes involved in the electron transport chain. Slide 11 on lecture 6 goes into further detail on them. An electron carrier (in this case Oxygen) is also required to pass electrons down the chain. If you want to learn more check out How can couples improve communication?
- Cytochromes and Ubiquinone are mobile electron carriers. - Electrons flow from low reducing potential to higher reducing potential.
- Proton motive force happens when the cell membrane becomes energized due to the electron transport reactions by the electron carriers embedded in it. This essentially causes the cell to act as a tiny battery where energy can
be used right away or stored. Protons are released and transported across the mitochondrial membrane at each stage of electron transport. Slides 25 and 26 in lecture 6 explain this.
- Slides 28 and 29 of lecture 6 show and explain the ATP synthase complex.
- Fat is stored in adipose tissue. Slides 11 and 13 on lecture 8 and 9 show how fats are mobilized by hormone control.
- Fatty acids must be activate before they can be moved to the mitochondria, this process involves the reaction with CoA to form fatty acyl CoA.
- The transport pathway that takes fatty acids to the mitochondria is called a carnitine shuttle.
- The fatty acid oxidation cycle produces acetyl CoA, FADH2, and NADH.
- Gluconeogenesis can’t occur by reverse glycolysis, because the reactions in the reverse direction are thermodynamically unfavorable. We also discuss several other topics like How do you prepare for a mikvah?
- The main source of pyruvate used for the generation of glucose in the liver comes from the breakdown of muscle proteins.
- Lactic acidosis is the buildup of lactate in the bodily which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream. The liver helps to prevent this by converting lactate (from muscles) into pyruvate. This requires an input of ATP.