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OLEMISS / exercise science / EXSC 338 / How do you calculate summation net facilitation of neural input on spe

How do you calculate summation net facilitation of neural input on spe

How do you calculate summation net facilitation of neural input on spe

Description

Exam Two Study Guide:


How do you calculate summation net facilitation of neural input on specific neuron?



1. Proprioception is: ______________________________________. 2. The three proprioceptors that we have learned about are: ________,  

________, & _______.

3. Role of proprioception in motor control: _______, ________, & _________. 4. Deafferentation is essentially means: _________________. 5. Muscle spindles are located: _______________________________ 6. Muscle spindles function to: _____________________

7. The sensory fibers that innervate muscle spindle fibers are: ________ &  

________

8. * The stretch reflex steps one through four are:  

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 9. Golgi-Tendon Organs are located: _________________


What types of proprioceptive information are received from muscle spindles?



10. Golgi-Tendon Organs function to: _________________ 11. The sensory fibers that innervate GTO’s are:  

______________________

12. Tendon Reflex sequence:  

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 13. Joint receptors are generally located: __________________________ 14. Joint receptors function to: __________________________ 15. Visceral pain is: ____________________

16. Name the two types of pain & their receptors:  

_______________________

17. Withdraw Reflex/Crossed Extensor Reflex sequences:  ________________________________________________________________________


What is the function of proprioception?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the differences between public health and medicine?

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________If you want to learn more check out What is the content of the civil rights act of 1875?

18. Define presynaptic inhibition & presynaptic facilitation:  ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 19. Define ESPS & IPSP:  

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 20. How do you calculate summation (net facilitation) of neural input

on specific neuron?  

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 21. Gamma motor neurons are located: _____________________ Gamma motor neurons function to: _____________________ 22. Explain alpha gamma co activation:  

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 23. Explain Renshaw cells:  We also discuss several other topics like What are the two phases of glycolysis?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ 24. Explain the Hoffman Reflex:  

________________________________________________________________________ We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of alcohol poisoning?

________________________________________________________________________ 25. Provide the general symptom for each specific spinal lesion  We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of the pyramidal hierarchical model?

provided: C5 (deltoid & biceps), C7 (triceps, extensors of wrist and  fingers), L2-4 (quadriceps), and S1 (plantarflexors & gastrocnemius)

Answers

1. The ability to feel and sense the position & movements that we make  with our limbs, trunk, and head - the information involves the direction

and velocity as well as the location in space & muscle activation 2. Muscle spindles, Golgi-Tendon Organs, and Joint Receptors/Pain 3. Accuracy of movement, onset of motor commands, completing  

coordinated control of movement

4. To destroy or cut off an afferent pathway in the body  5. In the deeper belly in the body of muscle, between extrafusal muscle  

fibers

6. Detect a change in the length or the rate of change in the length of the muscle (velocity), also enables the detection of changes in the angle of the jointDon't forget about the age old question of How are italian and northern art styles different?

7. Group la axon & group ll axon (transmit length info to CNS) 8. 1. Muscle spindle detects muscle stretch – hammer tap  

2. sensory neurons conduct action potentials to spinal cord 3. sensory neurons synapse directly with alpha motor neurons 4. alpha motor neurons conduct action potential to muscle & cause it  to contract/resist being stretched

9. in skeletal muscles near the insertion of a tendon / between muscle  

fibers and tendon

10. Detect the changes that occur in muscle tension (ex: force) 11. A single lb axon that intertwines among braided collagen fibers 12. Muscle tension increases -> GTO stretch -> lb fibers activated ->

inhibitory interneuron excited -> alpha-motoneurons inhibited ->  muscle relaxes -> excitation of Golgi tendon organs from a muscle =  

reduced excitation of muscle  

13. In the joint capsule/ligaments

14. Detect changes in joint movement at extreme limits of  

movement and position

15. Poorly localized & commonly expressed as referred pain in which  

the pain is referred to a somatic structure (heart attacks) 16. Short-latency pricking pain evoked by noxious stimuli that is  

carried by Alpha gamma fibers/group III afferents. Long-latency pain of  

burning and less bearable quality carried by C-fibers/group IV afferents 17.

a. Withdrawal: activation of pain fibers (flexor reflex afferents) –  excite excitatory interneurons that innervate flexor alpha motoneurons and inhibitory innervating extensory alpha  motoneurons = flexion (withdrawal from stimulus) = pain fibers

ultimately excite flexor muscles and inhibit extensor muscles to  

permit the withdrawal response

b. Crossed Extensor reflex: on opposite side of flexion response –  activation of pain fibers (flexor reflex afferents) -> excitation of  excitatory interneurons that innervate extensor alpha  

motoneurons and inhibitory interneurons that innervate flexor  alpha motoneurons = extension on opposite side of flexion  

(evident when stepping on something sharp)

18. Presynaptic inhibition: when one neuron suppresses another Presynaptic facilitation: when one neuron facilitates another  19. EPSP: postsynaptic potential that makes post synaptic neuron  

more likely to fire an action potential  

IPSP: postsynaptic potential that makes post synaptic neuron less likely to fire an action potential  

20. The process that determines whether an action potential will be  triggered by combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory signals (both from multiple simultaneous inputs (spatial summation) and from  

repeated inputs (temporal summation))

21. Location: anterior horn of spinal cord

Function: keep muscle spindles taut and adjust sensitivity of muscle  

spindles

22. When alpha motoneurons and gamma motoneurons are  activated at the same time. Allows spindle to act as error detection  system (CNS is informed about length of muscle compared to what  CNS initially intended) – adjustments made by CNS to achieve desired  length

23. Inhibitory interneurons that are found in gray matter of spinal  cord & associated with alpha motoneurons. They receive input from  brain. They are excited by collaterals from motor neurons, and then  inhibit those same motor neurons. Regulates motorneuron excitability  

& descending inputs that modulate excitability of Renshaw cell adjust  

excitability of motor neurons associated with that specific Renshaw cell 24. An electric analog for the tendon jerk reflex based on Paul  

Hoffman’s work in 1910, introduced in the 1950’s. It examines the  characteristics of the monosynaptic connections from la sensory fibers  to spinal neurons in humans. Electrically stimulating la fibers in the  

peripheral nerve to record reflex response in homonymous muscle  a. An estimation of net spinal excitability

b. La fibers of plantarflexors excited by electrode placed behind  knee over tibial nerve – response is recorded with EMG  

depending on stimulus strength  

25. - C5: reflexes of the biceps are lost

- C7: reflexes of triceps are lost

- L2-4: knee-jerk reflexes are lost (knee will not respond to knee-jerk  

reflex test)

- S1: ankle jerk reflexes are lost

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