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CAL / Psychology / PSYCH 61 / What are the possible effects of amphetamines on the body?

What are the possible effects of amphetamines on the body?

What are the possible effects of amphetamines on the body?

Description

School: University of California Berkeley
Department: Psychology
Course: Mind, Brain, and Behavior
Professor: David presti
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology and neuroscience
Cost: 50
Name: Psych C61 study guide midterm 2
Description: Notes from materials covered from lecture on the second part of Ch. 9 - Ch. 16
Uploaded: 03/26/2018
13 Pages 25 Views 14 Unlocks
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Psych C61 Study Guide


What are the possible effects of amphetamines on the body?



Midterm 2

Potentially Important Figures from Text:

● 10.1, pg 117

● 10.6, pg 121

● 11.1, pg 126

● 11.4, pg 129

● 11.6, pg 131

● 12.1, pg 137

● 13.1, pg 148

● 14.1, pg 159

● 14.2, pg 160

● 14.3, pg 162

● 15.10, pg 179

● 16.1, pg 187

● 16.4, pg 189

Cocaine

● Uses neurotransmitters

○ Norepinephrine

■ Located in the locus coeruleus

○ Dopamine

■ Located in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum

○ Both have a widespread impact


How to know if the person is having depression?



● NT Interfere with reuptake transporters

● Causes longer effect on postsynaptic NT receptors

● Effects:

○ Sympathomimetic

○ Central nervous system-

■ Stimulant

● Wakefulness

● Stamina

● Appetite suppressant

■ Toxicities

● Sympathetic overstimulation

● Central nervous system overstimulation

● Addiction

○ Abuse/addiction potential = high

● Effects of amphetamines exactly like cocaine

Opium Poppy

● Effects:

○ Analgesia

■ Reduces pain

○ Anxiolytic

■ Reduces anxiety


What is the definition of the monoamine hypothesis of depression?



○ Sedation

○ Cough suppressant

○ Decrease intestinal motility Don't forget about the age old question of What is dark continent?

○ Pupil constriction

● Semi-synthetic opiates/opioids

○ Heroin (diacetylmorphine)

■ 2-3 times stronger than morphine

○ Toxicity

■ Depression of respiratory control centers in brainstem

■ Potential overdose and death from respiratory depression

■ High addictive potential Don't forget about the age old question of Why is inflation so unpopular?

Pharmakon

● Opium Poppy- Morphine- Endorphins

● Coffee, Tea, Cacao- Caffeine- Adenosine

● Tobacco- Nicotine- Acetylcholine

● Belladonna- Atropine- Acetylcholine

● Coca- Cocaine- Dopamine

● Peyote Cactus- Mescaline- Serotonin

● Areca Nut- Arecoline- Acetylcholine

● Cannabis- delta 9 THC- Endocannabinoids

General Anesthetic Mechanisms

● Facilitator of GABA at ionotropic GABAR

● Microtubule disruptors

Antidepressants/Antipsychotics

● Psychiatric medications

○ Anxiety

○ Depression

○ Psychosis

○ Bipolar

Psychosis

● Impairment in ‘reality testing” We also discuss several other topics like What is the twofold purpose of genetic counseling?

● Characteristic symptoms

○ Delusions

○ Hallucinations

● Schizophrenia

○ Chronic psychotic condition

■ Prevalence/ risk

● General pop. ~1%

● Extended family ~3%

● Immediate family ~10%

● Both parents ~50%

● Identical twins ~50%

■ Genetic risk factors and environmental triggers

■ Snakeroot

● Used as

○ Anti-anxiety

○ Antipsychotic

○ Anti-hypertensive

● Molecule= Reserpine (1952)

● Classical antipsychotics

○ D2 dopamine receptor antagonist We also discuss several other topics like What is phatos?

● New generation antipsychotics

○ Dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonist

● Dopamine Hypothesis of Psychosis Don't forget about the age old question of What is health communication?

○ Excess activity in particular dopamine pathways

○ Antipsychotic drugs= dopamine receptor antagonist

○ Cocaine and amphetamines activate dopamine pathways and produce psychosis

Depression

● Feelings:

○ mood, interets, pleasure

● Thoughts:

○ guilt, suicidal ideation

● Actions:

○ eating, suicide attempt

● Somatic:

○ sleep, appetite, fatigue, agitation

● Prevalence in the U.S.

○ Lifetime ~17%

○ Current ~5%

● Medications target:

○ Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

○ Selective serotonin receptor inhibitors

○ Norepinephrine receptor inhibitors

● Monoamine Hypothesis of Depression

○ Related to hypofunction (underactivity) in certain monoamine neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly serotonin

Psychedelics/Hallucinogens

● Most Common:

○ Lysergic Acid Drethylanide (LSD)

○ Psilocybin/Psilocin

○ Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

○ Mescaline

● Interact most with serotonin 2A receptors

● Legal status:

○ Schedule 1

■ “No currently accepted medical use, lack of accepted safety for use under medicine supervision, high potential for abuse”

Cannabis

● Legal status: We also discuss several other topics like What are the four types of markets?

○ Federal schedule 1

○ State depends

● Uses:

○ Analgesic

○ Anti inflammatory

○ Muscle relaxant

○ Appetite stimulant

○ Ant seizure

○ Sedative

○ Hypnotic

○ Psychedelic like mental states

○ Reduces intraocular pressure

○ Antiemetic

● Top 4 cannabinoids

○ THCA-A

■ Converts to THC when heated

○ CBD

■ Antipsychotic

○ THC

■ Psychotomimetic

○ CBN

● Cannabinoids

○ One of the most abundant neurotransmitter receptor type in the brain ○ Most abundant GPCR

○ Found throughout the body

○ Receptors are primarily presynaptic

■ Uses Glutamate

○ Endocannabinoids are produced and released from postsynaptic receptors

■ Retrograde signal

Plasticity

● Strength of synapsis can be increased by keeping voltage gated Ca++ channels open ● Can influence strength by altering Na+ and K+ channels

● Change in reuptake channels can influence strength

● Altering postsynaptic neurotransmitters receptors can affect strength ● Changes in synaptic strength occurs all of the time

Human Genome

● Cell differentiation governed by transcription factor and RNA regulation ○ Activate transcription of genes to create different DNA

○ ~3% of genome codes for functional protein

○ ~97% transcribed into RNA

● Differentiation of Brain Cells

○ Stem cells- nervous system progenitor cell- various types of neuron and glial cells

○ Neurogenesis and gliogenesis occur together with axon and dendrite branching, cell migration, synaptogenesis

● Cytoskeletons

○ Microfilament

○ Microtubule

Neurotrophins

● Nerve growth factors

● Proteins produced

● Important for growth survival

● Contact factors

○ Attract

● Soluble factors

○ Repel

● Synaptogenesis/Synapse formation

● Activity dependant survival

● Stabilization through use

Synaptogenesis/ Synaptic Formation

● Pruning of synapses

● Activity dependant survival

● Stabilization through use

● Elimination through disuse

-At birth human brain has 28% of adult volume

-Plasticity/ rewiring happens all of the time

Sensory Perception

● All organisms have perception

○ Ex: E. Coli

■ Uses chemotaxis

● Guided by attractions

■ Microorganisms can detect and respond to physical stimuli

■ E. Coli have flagella that move them around

● At the base of the cell there are little molecular motors that allow it

to move

○ “Runs” -straight movement

○ “Tumbles” -changing direction

■ Chemoreceptor proteins (on cell surface)

● Detect attractants

● Bias random swim toward attractants by tumbling less

● Once it stops detecting attractants it’ll start tumbling more to try

and find more attractants

● Protozoan have chemotaxis towards oxygen

● Phototaxis (move) and phototropism (bend)

○ Behavioral responses to light

● Experience of the world

○ What is out there (huge assumption)

○ Physics of sensory receptors

○ Processing by brain

○ Naive realism

■ What we see or hear is exactly what’s out there

■ Flaws with this theory

● Deceptions

● Allusions

● Neuroscience of perception

○ Highly transformed and constructed

● Electromagnetic spectrum

○ Visible light

■ ~400nm- ~700nm

■ Range of human sensitivity

● Bees see in ultraviolet

● Some snakes see in infrared

● Some animals see in light polarization

○ Mostly insects and some birds

○ Used for navigation

○ Sunlight is initially unpolarized but becomes more polarized by bouncing off air molecules

○ Depends on location of the sun

● Ear and auditory sensation

○ Range of human sensitivity

■ ~20- ~20,00 hertz

○ Some animals have very high or low sensitivity

● Electric field detection

○ Used by

■ Sharks

■ Platypus

○ Active electroreception

● Magnetic field detection

○ Used for navigation

Nasal Passage

● Olfactory bulb

● Olfactory nerve fibers

● Olfactory receptors

○ Receptor proteins are GPCRs

○ Fish ~100 genes

○ mammals ~1000 genes

■ Mouse ~1300 genes

■ Human ~350 genes

● ~ 100,000 different odors

● ~650 non functional pseudogenes

-Aromatic odor/ flavor component of plants

● Essential oil

○ Distillation

○ Perfumery

-Deficit in olfactory perceptions

● Anosmia

● Specific anosmia

○ Gene change in one olfactory GPCR

-Olfactory pathways

● Olfactory bulbs

○ Amygdala, temporal cortex hypothalamus: limbic system

-Pheromones

● Chemicals used for intraspecies social communication ○ Territorial making

○ Sex

○ Social status

○ Identity

○ Mate attraction

● Vomeronasal organ

○ Pheromone detection in vertebrate animals

● Human pheromones

○ Menstrual synchrony in women

○ Sexual attraction

■ “Human leukocyte antigen” gene

■ Tears

Taste, Gustation

● Flavor

○ Taste

○ Smell

○ Pungency

○ Texture

● Taste bud

○ Signals carrying taste use primarily cranial nerves 7, 9, and 10 ○ There’s two main pathways

■ 1. Tongue- brainstem- Thalamus- insula- cerebral cortex ■ 2. Tongue- brainstem- hypothalamus- analgus

● Uses limbic system

● Causes intentional type reactions

○ Five different receptor cell types

■ 1. Salt

● Receptor: ion channel

● Ligamen: Na+

■ 2. Sour

● Receptor: ion channel

● Ligamen: H+ (acids)

■ 3. Bitter

● Receptor: GPCR

○ 30 different types

● Ligamen: alkaloids

■ 4. Sweet

● GPCR

○ 2 different types

● Ligamen: sucrose

■ 5. Umami

● GPCR

● Ligamen: glutamate

○ Chili

■ Capsaicin

● “Hot” substance in chili

● The amount of capsaicin directly determines how hot the

substance is

● Capsaicin receptor

○ It opens Ca++ channels which causes depolarization

■ Results in the perception of thermal hotness

○ Also activated by heat

○ Found all over the place

■ Tongue

■ Somatosensory periphery

■ Brain

○ Receptor

■ TRPV1

○ Other TRP receptors

■ TRPM8

● Menthol

● Responds to cold

■ TRPA1

● Allyl-isothiocyanate

● Mustard, horseradish, wasabi

■ TRPA1 and TRPV1

● Allicin

● Crushed garlic

Vision

● Humans are sensitive to visible light

○ ~400nm - ~700nm

● Rod photoreceptors

○ Photoreceptor protein

■ Rhodopsin

● Sensitive to dim light

○ Rod wavelength

■ 498 nm

○ Distribution

■ ~100,000,000

● Cone photoreceptors

○ Photoreceptor protein

■ Con-opsin

● Sensitive to bright light

○ Short wavelength cone

■ 420 nm

○ Medium wavelength cone

■ 530 nm

○ Long wavelength cone

■ 560 nm

○ Distribution

■ ~5,000,000

○ Cone photoreceptors are responsible for color vision

○ Retinal achromatopsia

■ Loss of all cone cells

■ No color vision

● Photoreceptor proteins

○ GPCR

■ Rhodopsin and cone-opsin chains of amino acids

■ Activated by light

■ Retinal

● Light absorbing molecule

● Embedded within the protein

● Must eat it, the body doesn’t produce it naturally

○ Vitamin A

○ Beta- carotene

■ Carrots

■ Green vegetables

Light/Sight:

● Light is a vibration of the electromagnetic field

● There’s an inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency

● Photoreceptor GPCR

○ Uses cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase

■ Causes Na+ channels to open

○ One photon of light- one rhodopsin- up to 100 G-proteins- up to 100

phosphodiesterase- up to 10,000 CGMPs hydrolyzed per second

■ Huge amplification

● Convergent evolution of eyes

● Contralateral connectivity

○ Things from right visual field end up processed in left side of brain and vise versa ● Receptive field of a cell

○ The area of space from which a stimulus elicits a neural response

● Visual cortex

○ Occipital, posterior parietal, posterior temporal lobes

● Hemianopia

○ Blindness in one hemifield

■ Lesions in V1= scotoma

■ Lesions in V4= cortical achromatopsia

● Color perception problems

■ Lesions in V5= motion blindness

■ Lesions in posterior temporal lobe= prosopagnosia

● Retina-Primary visual cortex

○ V1~90%

● Retina- Superior colliculus

○ In midbrain~10%

Sound/Hearing:

● Waves of changes in density (pressure) of air molecules= sound waves ○ Air pressure= air molecule density

○ Sound wave= air pressure variation over time

○ Frequency= pitch

○ Amplitude= loudness

○ Complexity= timbre

● Fourier analysis gives component frequencies

● The cholclea is performing a fourier decomposition of incoming sound in our ears ● Hair cell cilia in basilar membrane

○ Uses molecular cables coupled to K+ channels

■ These channels are opened with movement from the cilia

● Voice

○ Our own experience of our voice is through body and bone conduction ○ Other people's experience of our voice is through the air

○ That’s why our voice sounds different on a recording

● Hair cells- 8th cranial nerve- brainstem- midbrain- thalamus- cortex ○ Neural pathway from cochlea to cortex

● Hearing loss

○ Infection

■ Induced damage to cochlea

■ Genetic impairments of cochlea connexin genes for ion channels ○ Noise induced

■ Acute acoustic trauma

● Sudden loud noises

○ Gunshot, explosions, etc..

■ Chronic acoustic trauma

● Fairly loud noises over time

○ Concerts, clubs, work environments >85 dB, personal

music players, etc..

○ Hair cells can vibrate themselves to death because of loud noises ■ Inner hair cells

● ~3500 per cholclea

■ Outer hair cells

● ~12000 per cholclea

● Vestibular system in inner ear

○ Semicircular canals

■ Utricle

● Hair cells are located

■ Saccule

● Orientation and movements affected by otonia

○ otonia= calcium carbonate stones

■ Have to do with balance and gravitational direction

■ In charge of stabilization

■ Disorders

● Dizziness

● Vertigo

Somatosensory Perception

● Dorsal root ganglion (DRG)

○ Somatosensory neuron

● Postcentral gyrus

○ Map of the body

● F1 lesions= loss of sensation

● Lesion of posterior somatosensory cortex= neglect syndrome

People:

● Friedrich Wilhelm Sertürner (1783-1841)

○ Discover morphine and codeine

● Albert Hofmann (1906-1985)

○ Discover LSD

○ Discovered components of mushrooms

● Maria Sabina (1894-1985)

○ Revealed to outside world the tradition of mexican people and the use of psychedelic plants

● Richard Schults (1915-2001)

○ Botanist

● Raphael Mechoulam (1930-...)

○ Discovered psychotic in THC

○ Discovered first cannabinoids

○ Emphasized importance of this type of science and was disregarded ● Roger Sperry (1913-1994)

○ Frog eye experiment

■ Chemoaffinity hypothesis 1940

● Neurons use specific chemical signals to guide their wiring

(migration and synaptogenesis) during development

● Marian Diamond (1926-2017)

○ Proposed idea of constant change in the brain

○ Based off of test done on rats she found that different environments alter the structure of the brain

○ Use it or Lose it

○ Most influential factors on the brain

■ Novelty

■ Challenge

■ Exercise

■ Nutrition

■ Love (physical contact)

● Karl Von Frisch (1886-1982)

○ Focused on honeybee vision and other aspects of animal behavior ○ Proved humans aren’t the only ones who can see color

○ Won Nobel Prize of Physiology/Medicine in 1973

● Adrianus Kalmijn

○ Magnetic field shark experiment

● George Berkeley (1685-1753)

○ Nothing exist independently of what is perceiving it

● Joseph Fourier (1788-1830)

○ Decomposing a wavelength into a sum of simpler sinusoidal frequency components

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